The investigations on studying the ACC-utilizing bacteria influence on the efficiency of symbiotic systems of different soya varieties are carried out. The stimulatory effect of introduced microorganisms on the formation of nitrogen-fixing symbiosis of plants and local populations of nodule bacteria is proved. Thereby the yield capacity increment reached 2,4…6,3 dt/ha. Thereat the efficiency of the used biopreparations mainly depends on the variety.
THE CONDITION OF SEEDS AND SOYA BEAN YIELD UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF DESICCANTS
Durnev G.I., Yatchuk P.V., Kirsanova E.V., Tsukanova Z.R.
It is determined that desiccants Reglon Super, Tornado and PAP-600 have to be used at the condition of plant development when low leaves begin to turn yellow and grain moisture is 65% but not 45% as it was accepted earlier. In Orel region the desiccants allow harvesting middle-ripening soybean varieties with direct combining. The harvesting occurs at the end of August that is 10-15 days earlier. Among investigated products Reglon Super at a rate of 2.0 l/ha is more effective substance on seed crops. Desiccants decrease yield of soybean seeds insignificantly but that is compensated by early harvesting at good weather.
EFFECT OF THE SHORT PERIOD HEATING ON COLD RESISTANT ABILITY OF THE ASIAN PEAR CULTIVARS CHUWHANGBAE AND NIITAKA DURING WINTER PERIOD
Rajametov Sherzod, Kang Sam-Seok
The purpose of this study was to investigate responses of pear cultivars Niitaka and Chuwhangbae under short period heating on cold resistance degree of flower buds. Experience was conducted in annual shoots flower bud where used control state (non-heated) and shoots which were artificially heated (AH) during 72 hour in water in room condition (18-20°С). To assay cold resistance of cultivars they were treated under negative temperatures -10°С,-15°С,-20°С and -25°С during 2012-2013 winter period with every 15 days interval and was detected changing of cold resistant depending on the fluctuation of the outside temperature and cultivars own characteristics. A study revealed that during organic rest period before entrance to deep dormancy Chuhwangbae was more resistant to low temperature under control and AH state than that of Niitaka and the damaging level of flower buds slowly decreased and reached minimum by mid January. And by March the damages was increased again. Cold resistant cultivar Chuwhangbae responds more sensitively to external environments. It means that it can realize with high rate hardening process by the restructuring of the plant protoplasts and the transition process to the new metabolic energy level by effecting negative temperatures. And we assume that it might be closely related with dormancy, concentration of the mineral elements, water potential and transition processes of metabolism to the new energetic level.
FLUCTUATING ASYMMETRY OF BETULA PENDULA LEAVES AS A BIOINDICATOR OF AEROTECHNOGENIC POLLUTION OF AGROLANDSCAPES
Lobkov V.T., Vetrova J.V.
The main goal of our research was to determine the variability model and fluctuating asymmetry indices of the metric signs of Betula pendula as a typical species which grow uniformly in the Orel region and Orel.The following problems were solved:to collect material in the planting of silver birch in two areas;to determine the parameters of Betula pendula leaf blade and the level of its asymmetry; to explore the basic statistical properties of the asymmetry parameters of the individual features characterizing the asymmetry of the whole object;to substantiate the use of Betula pendula in urban ecosystems for gardening and landscaping. The estimation of the changes of developmental stability Betula pendula in biotopes with different levels of anthropogenic impact is carried out. The character of the fluctuating asymmetry of Betula pendula place in the Orel region and Orel, in areas with weak and strong anthropogenic impact, has been studied. Found that the deterioration of the ecological state of urban environment does not determine the reduction of the population development stability of Betula pendula and can testify to its tolerance to environmental contamination.
STUDY OF PHYTOTOXICITY DECREASE TECHNIQUES OF LEAD AND CADMIUM COMPOUNDS
Basov Y.V., Kozyavina K.N.
The biological activity of anthropogenic polluted soil, phytotoxicity of ions of lead and cadmium on model systems is studied. The contents of heavy metals (HM) in soil, land and rooted biomass are specified. The results of research show, that biological activity of soil is formed low as lands are disturbed anthropogenically: very low - two-rowed barley, soft wheat, common barley, oat, lupine, oil radish; low - durum wheat, millet, buckwheat; high - buckwheat and millet. The research of soil pollution by salts of heavy metals was spent on model systems in the conditions of a sheltered ground, test crop - cultivated oat (variety «Fighter»). Liming reduced contents of mobile form of HMs in soil, contributed in their detoxication. Sodium acetate utilization resulted in the rise of рН medium and in the conditions of alkalizing the ions of metals became very mobile, the humus total thus decreased. High density of heavy metals in system «soil - heavy metals - acetate» undertakes sharp depressing of evolution of plants that has led to making up of the lowest productivity of commodity or of the total loss of plants. The most oppressed are oats plants on soil with contents of ions Pb2 +. The bioindication method has allowed estimate the efficiency of various methods of decrease of phytotoxicity of HM ions in system «soil - a plant». The biohumus sharply reduces quantity of mobile forms of Cd (II), Pb (II) and their phytotoxicity. Lime at depositing in soil to a lesser degree, than biohumus, links HM ions and slightly reduces their phytotoxicity.
SOME ACTUAL TASKS OF ECOLOGICAL PHYSIOLOGY OF PLANTS
Drozdov S N., Kolomeychenko V.V., Kholoptseva E.S.
Even prior to the development of agriculture, people paid attention to the influence of climate on the growth characteristics of plants. Development of agriculture and, in particular, the great geographical discoveries accelerated studying of the botanical characteristics of plants. This work gives a brief review of the history of development of eco-physiological trend in physiology and ecology of plants. Possibilities of the use of the planned multiple-factor experiment in adjustable environmental conditions with the regression analysis of the obtained results for the definition of the ecological characteristic of ecotype on the set phase of its development are considered.
ENDOGENOUS AND EXOGENOUS FACTORS AT BREEDING AND EXPLOITATION OF DIFFERENT COW BREEDS
Shilov А.I., Lyashuk R.N., Shilov О.А.
Breeding and exploitation of all cultural breeds in industrial scales is enough difficult and the most important an expense enterprise. In this regard the continuous search of balance between the production amount increase (beat and milk) and production cost savings constantly makes stock-breeders create and breed new varieties. Most breeds of dwarf cows are created in India - 26 from 30, here their number in the world permanent increased. Important achievement of selectionists of dwarf breeds was become by privitie of immunity, to high-resistivity of these cows to the different diseases. Milk the productivity of these cows averages in a day to three litres of milk, that taking into account its living mass it is possible to consider a record. Percent correlation of dry fat free remains and fat in milk of these midget zoons practically the same, as well as for ordinary cows. Practice proved that they turned out to very clever and more than that cheap in keeping. In winter there are little expenditures on hay and mixed feed, in summer green lawns and small areas of inarables are excellent pastures for them. Today the cost of dwarf cows calves is in the range of 100$ per animal.
DIAGNOSIS OF MASTITIS IN COWS AT DETECTION OF TERMOREGULATION DISODERS OF MAMMARY GLAND
Skrebneva E.N., Timohin O.V., Skrebnev S.A., Sahno N.V.
Not only local protective reactions but also reactions of organism as a whole are activated at mastitis. Significant changes that lead to visible shifts in the concentration of natural resistance factors take place.As a result, methods of fixation of natural resistance changes of the whole organism andof the mammary gland were taken as basis of mastitis diagnosis. With any inflammatory process in the body at pathology of mammary gland thermoregulation disorders are observed. The degree of abnormalities from the temperature norm in the sick organ and in the whole organism depends on the nature of the inflammatory process. This article describes the substantiation of mastitis diagnostics method, based on the change in the value of the heat flow from the surface of the udder skin. New methods of mastitis diagnostics, based on the change in the rate of the heat flow from the surface of the udder skin, allow dispensing with reagents, selection of milk samples and reduce the time of investigation.
The article describes the method of hardening of tillage tools operating in the conditions of abrasive wear that provides to increase their resource considerably. The method consists in short-circuited arc surfacing of nanometal ceramic composite powder materials with simultaneous thermodiffusion hardening. Equipment, methods and research results of hardness, microstructure and wear resistance of the hardened working surfaces are presented. On their ground the optimal composition and concentration of material components, providing the best physical and mechanical properties and resource of the hardened tillage tools are defined.
THE ANALYSIS AND CHOICE OF MODELS OF DURABILITY AT PROBES OF RELIABILITY OF DRIVE LINES
The most actual problem of modern agricultural mechanical engineering is increasing of durability of details of transport and technological cars and the equipment by criteria of wear, corrosion and fatigue strength at simultaneous drop of their massogabaritny indicators. The continuous increase in power, working speed and other indicators of cars and the equipment, and also growth of intensity of details connected with it result in need of use in the course of probe of reliability of transmissions of cars of the latest developments of science and, in particular, specification of models of durability of their knots. The analysis of known models of durability of bearings of drive lines of transport and technological cars and the equipment is provided in article taking into account a type of refusal. The order of a choice of model of durability for carrying out target probes on the basis of calculations of dynamic loading capacity of bearings is offered.
REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT FORMATION OF TECHNOLOGICAL POTENTIAL IN THE CENTRAL FEDERAL DISTRICT OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Polyanin A.V., Makarova Y.V.
Management of social and economic development of regional complexes must take account of economic and innovative potential of the region. We used a technique based on the calculation system of interrelated indicators to the potential subjects’ assessment of the Central Federal District. In terms of overcoming the crisis, the technological potential of the regional complex will depend on the degree of implementation of the advantages in regions. Effective implementation of the technological capabilities will allow less painful exit from the crisis for those regions which were able to take advantage of economic and innovative potential.
ANALYSIS OF USING OF ENERGY RESOURCES BY EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS OF NIZHNY NOVGOROD REGION
Sbitnev E.A., Osokin V.L., Mikhaylova O.V.
In work the analysis of use of energy resources is carried out. Object of research were educational institutions of the Nizhny Novgorod Region. Result of research is the revealed potential of irrationally used volume of energy resources in the form of thermal energy, the electric power, firm and liquid types of fuel, motor fuel, and also water. Capital costs of energy saving actions will make about 239,644 million rubles, with a payback period is about 3.64 years. These figures show the enormous potential which can be used in educational institutions having aimed it at the development of material base for the purpose of improvement of quality of rendered educational services.
A SPATIAL-STRUCTURAL MODEL FOR CLASSIFICATION AND CHANGE DETECTION OF VEGETATION COVERAGE ON MULTISPECTRAL SATELLITE IMAGE
Hung Trinh Le, Hoai Dao Khanh
In analyzing the spatial-structures of various object types represented on multispectral images, we propose a new spatial-structural model for classification and two models for change detection vegetation coverage. The model for evaluation of coastline dynamic change has eliminated the disadvantage of traditional methods. It can be applied to images received from various sensors. Both change detection models used the spatial-structural model for classification purpose. Results of analytical processes can be used for making vegetation maps, updating topographic maps, analyzing hydrology network change, agricultural land and residential areas.
THE REVIEW OF EXISTING TECHNOLOGIES OF CREATION ORTOPHOTOPLANS ON LINEAR OBJECTS
The review of existing methods and technologies of creation of orthophotomaps on linear objects taking into account use of classical as well as modern technologies of shooting and data processing is provided in this work. The technology of creation of orthophotomaps consists of the following stages: creation of the project and input of basic data; realization of internal orientation of pictures; measurements of coordinates of binding points; measurements of coordinates of points of planned and high-rise preparation; calculation and creation of photogrammetric model; creation or qualifier import; drawing areas on pictures in which the orthophototransformation; creation of Digital Elevation Model; creation of orthophotomaps.