The study was designed to investigate the economics of herbal industrial units in Himachal Pradesh. Most of the herbal industries are organized as sole proprietorship followed by partnership, private, co-operative and private. Most of the entrepreneurs of herbal industrial units in H.P. were having experience 21 to 30 years. As an entrepreneur of herbal industry in H.P., Technical graduates (BAMS) were high in as compared to graduates other than BAMS. Profitability analysis revealed that herbal processing industry is a profitable venture. Multiple regression analysis showed that explanatory variables positively affecting the gross return of herbal industry of H.P. were found to be; expenses on packaging and qualification (number of years of schooling).
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE POVERTY AND PROFITABILITY STATUS OF ADOPTERS AND NON-ADOPTERS OF SUSTAINABLE TAUNGYA FARMING IN OGUN STATE
Abiola M.O., Omidiji D.A., Umeh D.N., Edewor S.A., Adegoke A.O.
This paper investigates the comparative analysis of the poverty and profitability status of adopters and non-adopters of sustainable taungya farming in Ogun State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling procedure was employed for this study. At the first stage, primary data were obtained from a cross-sectional survey of 160 farmers drawn from a purposive selection of two Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) zones; Ijebu east and Ilaro zones. The second stage involved the proportionate selection of five blocks from the two ADP zones and at the third stage, four cells each were randomly selected per block. However, only 155 respondents who completed all the questionnaire items were actually used for data analysis. Descriptive statistics, Foster, Greer and Thorbecke Poverty Index, and Budgetary techniques were used for data analysis. Results revealed that 62.5% of the farmers adopted taungya farming as a form of agroforestry practice, while 34.3% of the farmers were non-adopters. The estimated relative poverty line was N2627.59 per week. Poverty incidence, depth and severity among the adopters were 30.1%, 6.8% and 0.4% respectively while they were 45.4%, 26.3% and 6.9% respectively for the non-adopters. The decomposition of the poverty status according to sub-groups was equally shown. The budgetary analysis showed that the net farm income of adopters which was N249,327/ha was significantly (p<0.05) different from that of the non-adopters which was N167,391/ha. The study concluded that taungya farming improved adopter’s welfare compared to non-adopters and accounted positively in reducing poverty. This study recommended that taungya farming should be encouraged to increase rural farmers’ income, and alleviate poverty.
COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF INSECTICIDAL PLANTS ON THE MANAGEMENT OF GROUNDNUT BRUCHID (CARYEDON SERRATUS)
Simon Idoko Okweche
Laboratory study was conducted to determine the efficacy of four insecticidal plant extracts Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae), Eupatorium odoratum L. (Asteraceae), Tephrosia vogelii Hook against the groundnut bruchid beetle ( Caryedon serratus ), and a synthetic insecticide (Cypermethrin) (10EC)) under ambient condition of temperature and relative humidity (30°C and 72%). Two hundred grammes of unshelled groundnut was weighed into jute bags and treated with powders of the insecticidal plants. Both treated and untreated bags of groundnut were then infested with newly emerged adult of C. serratus (20 per bag) and covered. The experiment was laid out in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with four replications. Parameters assessed included number of egg oviposited, number of eggs hatched (eclosion) and number of adults that emerged from each treatment, total developmental period (egg - adult), sex ratio of the emerged adults and finally percentage germination of the treated seeds. Data collected were analyzed using analysis of variance and means were separated using Duncan multiple range tests at 5% level of significance. The lowest mean number of eggs was laid in A. indica, L. camara and T. vogelli treated seeds compared with the control which recorded the highest number. Similarly, results obtained showed that L. camara, T. vogelii, and A. indica powder significantly reduced damage by C. serratus and increased germination percentage compared with E. odoratum and control. In conclusion, L. camara, T. vogelii, and A. indica have the potentials as alternatives to synthetic insecticides in the management of C. serratus by farmers.
PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS OF SELECTING INFORMAL INSURANCE MEASURES FOR SELECTED ENTERPRISES BY RURAL FARMERS IN ODOGBOLU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA
Ogunmefun S.O., Achike A.I.
This study analyzed the farming systems and other informal insurance measures used by farmers for optimum farm income in Odogbolu Local Government Area of Ogun state, Nigeria. To give effect to the study, eighty farmers were randomly selected from the study area. Data collected through structured questionnaires and interview schedules was analyzed using net farm income analysis. Results showed the gross margin of the farmers who cultivated more than one crop, and reared one poultry or small ruminant animal have more income than those who do not. This research work also showed that rural farmers use different informal insurance measures like diversification of crop and livestock enterprises, contract farming, keeping buffer stock, savings, land fragmentation and others to manage risks that they routinely face. Out of the ten (10) informal insurance measures studied, diversification was the most practiced among the respondents while contract farming is the least used by the respondents. Recommendations include encouraging farmers to adopt the most profitable farming systems and informal insurance measures to help rural people have a stable income.
NITRIFICATION DYNAMICS UNDER SUBMERGED AND AERATED SOIL CONDITIONS
Shahzad H., Iqbal M.
Nitrogen is a pivotal component of proteins making 60% dry matter of plant cell. It is reported deficient in most of the soils of world. An incubation study was conducted to assess N- transformations under aerobic and submerged conditions using organic amendment. Maximum oxidation of NH 4 was observed in organically amended soils followed by control treatment. Nitrification is NH 4 to NO 3 conversion process was observed to be lowest under submerged condition. With passage of incubation time NO 3 content in organically amended and control treatment get enhanced while under flooded conditions least declining trend in NH 4 content was observed from start to ending days. Least N losses were observed in organically amended aerated soil.