The study investigated the contribution of SAT's agricultural intervention in ward 21 of Bikita in an attempt to improve food security to this drought prone area. The research was largely premised on qualitative methodology and unstructured interviews, focus group discussions and onsite observation were employed as techniques for data gathering. Using these methodological techniques, it was revealed that conservation farming brought by SAT was not smoothly appreciated by the intended beneficiaries. Regardless the fact that the majority of the farmers were given free farming inputs, they failed to fully embrace all the instructions like minimizing soil tillage, reliance on compost manure only to mention but a few. The farmers resisted total participation because the techniques were labor intensive and sometimes contradict their orthodox or indigenous farming techniques. This has resulted in the emergence of an antagonistic relationship between SAT officials and the local farmers on the best method of farming which may improve food security. Also the research revealed that too much reliance on compost manure has created environmental challenges with fears of its depletion since the area was already overpopulated. This led to the emergence of conflicts between the participants, non-participants, owners and non-owners of domestic animals because the forage was under threat. All these events were analyzed using Darendorf's (1959)'s Conflict theory which explains the potential of conflicts outbreak between two or more groups interacting. This can be best explained with the conflicts which existed between the locals on the environment and also between SAT and the locals on the way forward about farming. It was concluded that there was a need for encompassing approach where all stakeholders should sit down together and consider the favorable conditions to make the programme acceptable, successful and sustainable.
EFFECT OF MARKETING EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT IN INDONESIA
Anindita Ratya, Baladina Nur, Setiawan Budi
This paper studies the effect of marketing efficiency in Indonesia. If the government could improve the marketing efficiency may result to an improvement on food security and household welfare. This analysis used a computable general equilibrium model where households disaggregated by eight income class based on Indonesian SAM year 2008 with 23 sectors. The results showed that the improvement of marketing efficiency by 5-15% could increase the supply of domestic agricultural by 9.7 to 200%, except nuts which remained constant, while the other sectors would be vary. Exporting from agricultural sectors increased by 120-1287%, but the rice and other crops would declined, the other sectors rose and constant. The imports quantities of agricultural sector generally rose, except the corn are remained constant, tubers are decline. Meanwhile the quantity import of other sectors would rose. Improvement of agricultural marketing efficiency also resulted in a decrease in household's expenses by 3.3 to 6.7%, 41-45% and government by 3.9 to 7.3%. As a contra, the welfare of households rose from 0.7 to 1.1% and the producer dropped 38-40%. Thus improving marketing efficiency of agricultural products have a positive effect on increasing food security and household welfare in Indonesia.
FARMER'S PROFITABILITY OF POTATO CULTIVATION AT RANGPUR DISTRICT: THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONTEXT OF BANGLADESH
Mukul Abu Zafar Ahmed, Rayhan Shah Johir, Hassan Masudul
Bangladesh is predominantly an agricultural country. Agriculture is the indispensable culture of Bangladesh. Agriculture has a enceinte contribution to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the country. Earlier more than 50% of GDP came from this sector. Various types of crops are produced in this country. These crops might have been categorized into two-food crops and cash crops. Potato is one of the food-stuff of the most people of the world as well as Bangladesh. Potato crop is being treated as foremost crop. This study was conducted to approximation the cost of production and profitability of potato producers at Rangpur district. Data collected from 30 farmers using simple random sampling technique. The potato farmers showed individual differences in their socio-economic characteristics and absolute majority of them belonged to young age category (20-35 years) having medium family size, illiterate, medium farm size (0.34-1.0 acre), (1-10 years) farming experience. Most of the respondents used cardinal variety of potato seed and sell their output at home. Farmers who sell potato in the market were more profitable than others. The study also designates that the large farmers were most profitable compared to others. Major problem faced by the potato farmers were lower price of potato during harvesting period, price fluctuation , shortage of capital, high charge of cold storage, lack of good quality seed, perish ability of potato, poor storage facility, higher price of inputs and lack of marketing facility etc. Proper steps should be postulated by Government to puzzle out this problem. The determinations of the study will generate basic economic data on the production practices of potato. At long last it will be helpful to the planners and policy makers in contriving micro or macro level policy for the enlargement of potato production in the country.