In tropical and subtropical areas, the importance of organic manure in improving soil physico-chemical properties and crop production for food security cannot be overemphasized. A study was conducted during 2012/2013 crop years to investigate the effects of rumen digesta on the physical and chemical properties of soils in Nsukka, Enugu state Nigeria. The soil samples collected from Opi, Nsukka were treated to four rates of rumen digesta (viz. 0, 50, 100, and 150 gkg - soils). Physical and chemical properties of the soil were determined pre and post-experiment. The results obtained revealed that rumen digesta significantly (p = 0.05) increased the mean weight diameter (0.49 to 1.75mm), aggregate stability (54.7% to 75.3%), soil pH (3.8 to 7.8), total nitrogen (0.01% to 0.02%), exchangeable sodium and potassium (0.22 to 4.39cmolkg - for Na + and 0.30cmolkg - to 4.31 for K +), CEC (7.2 to 14.9cmolkg -) and organic matter content (0.97% to 4.29%). It had no significant effect on the texture, micro-aggregate (measured as dispersion ratio), exchangeable calcium and magnesium content of the soils. The study found significant reduction in the exchangeable aluminum (1.5 to 0.0cmolkg -) and hydrogen content (3.7 to 2.2cmolkg -) of the soils. It recommended that farmers can improve the physical and chemical properties of soils by using rumen digesta as an alternative liming material.
THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON RICE YIELD IN BANGLADESH: A TIME SERIES ANALYSIS
Iftekhar Uddin Ahmed Chowdhury, Mohammad Abul Earshad Khan
Rice is the staple food of about 158 million people of Bangladesh, but the increasing climate change vulnerabilities and global warming are severely reducing the yield of various rice crops and may threaten the food security in the country. Therefore, this study is undertaken to examine the potential impact of climate change on the yield of three different rice crops (namely, Aus, Aman and Boro) in Bangladesh. A multiple regression analysis using OLS method is employed to assess the climate-crop yield interrelations on the basis of country level time series data for the period 1972-2014. We find that all the climate variables have had significant impact on rice yield over the period under study, but these effects vary among three different rice yields. Our findings also reveal that maximum temperature is statistically significant and negatively affect the yield of all three rice crops. In contrast, minimum temperature is highly significant and have positive impact on the yield of Boro rice only. Furthermore, rainfall is found significant for all rice yields with positive effects on Aus and Aman rice and adverse effects on Boro. However, humidity has a statistically signiﬁcant effect on the yield of all three rice crops. Nevertheless, the inﬂuences of maximum temperature and rainfall are more prominent compared with that of minimum temperature and humidity on rice yield in Bangladesh. Our findings emphasize the importance of adaptation of temperature-tolerant rice varieties, and suggest that sustainable agricultural development may play a vital role in mitigating adverse climate change effects.
ANALYSIS OF MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR SYSTEMS IN LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION
Kovalev L.I., Kovalev I.L.
In article the analysis of various systems of technical service is carried out and a number of tasks of improvement of the organization of maintenance and repair on livestock farms and complexes in modern conditions of the market is defined. Efficiency of practical application of system of scheduled preventive maintenance and maintenance of cars and the equipment of animal husbandry locates.
ANALYSIS OF TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY OF GROUNDNUT-BASED CROPPING SYSTEMS AMONG FARMERS IN HONG LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ADAMAWA STATE
Bathon A.H., Maurice D.C.
The study analyzed the technical efficiency of groundnut-based cropping systems among farmers in Hong Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 120 randomly selected groundnut farmers using multi-stage sampling technique. The study identified two groundnut-based cropping systems, namely; sole groundnut which accounted for 39.2% of the cropping systems and groundnut/sorghum which accounted for 60.80% of the cropping systems, indicating that mixed cropping dominate groundnut enterprise in the study area. The result of the stochastic frontier production function shows that sigma squared was 0.522 and significant at 1% level, indicating good fit and correctness of the distributional form assumed for the composite error term. The value of gamma was 0.841 and significant at 1% level, suggesting that 84% of the variability in the output of farmers was due to differences in their technical efficiency. Coefficients of farm size, hired labour, family labour and herbicides were positive and significant at varying levels indicating direct relationship with the output of groundnut-based cropping systems. The analysis of the inefficiency variables shows that formal education, cropping system, primary occupation and household size decreases technical inefficiency of the farmers. Mean technical efficiency (TE) was 74% indicating that farmers have the potential to increase their TE by 26% in the short run given the current state of technology. To achieve this, farm inputs should be provided on time and at subsidized rate by government and relevant stakeholders.
CONSUMER PREFERENCES FOR PAWPAW IN IBADAN METROPOLIS
Olabode I.A., Akinwumi G.S., Layade A.A., Adegbite O.O.
Pawpaw is one of the tropical fruits that are produced and consumed in various forms all through the year in Nigeria. A field research survey was undertaken to study the consumer preference and analyze consumer behaviour regarding pawpaw in Ibadan, Oyo State Nigeria, during the period of June to November 2013. Two hundred and fifty consumers were selected in the metropolis at random for the interview using structured questionnaires. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square. The result of the analysis showed that 52% of the respondents were female while 48% were male. Most of the respondents were between 25 and 44 years (68.4%) and married (74.8%). Study revealed 65.6% consumed pawpaw in both peak and lean seasons attributing their reasons to health benefits >taste >colour>price. Preferred attributes of pawpaw include: oblong shape (36.4%), medium size (41.2%), yellow flesh colour (53.6%) and slightly green fruit colour (41.2%). The chi-square values showed that there was no significant difference in the response on shape (p>0.05). However, responses about size, flesh colour, fruit colour and amount willing to pay differ significantly (p<0.05). Factors such as taste >price>size>colour > shape determine purchase decision of pawpaw. The study recommends intensive research into development and multiplication of pawpaw varieties that have appealing characteristics to consumers for increased demand.