Background: In our early publications was shown that electrophorhetic motility of erythrocytes (EPME) is a high effective criteria of adaptation response. This correlation is based on parallel development of adaptation syndrome and activation of the main organism regulatory systems, such as sympatoadrenalic and hypotalamo-hypophosial-adrenal ones. Objective: study of the influence of physical exercises and adrenaline injections on electrophorhetic motility, membrahes phospholipids spectrum and oxidative metabolism of the rats’ erythrocytes. Methods: Rats were divided into three equal groups. First group of animals was control (n=10; without any manipulations). Rats of second group were subjected to physical load in the form of a sailing duration of 15 minutes with a cargo amounting to 10% of animal body weight (water temperature – 26-280C). Rats of third group were intraperitoneally injected with adrenaline hydrochloride (0.1 mg/kg). Blood sampling was made from the sublingual vein in 15, 30, 60, 120 minutes and 24 hours after exposure. We estimated the dynamics of the electrophorhetic motility of erythrocytes (EPME), the phospholipid spectrum of erythrocytes membranes, the concentration of malonic dialdehyde (MDA) and the state of the glutathione system. Results and conclusions: The study suggests that red blood cell as a biological system is capable for realization of stress response may develop a special “alarm reaction” after action of the stress agent. This response initiates activation of free radical processes and phospholipids profile in erythrocyte membranes with reducing of its electronegativity. This stage enhances the activity of the antioxidant system, is limiting the development of lipid peroxidation processes, and leads to the development of "adaptation stage" of the cellular system, coupled with the restoration of the electronegativity of the membrane and the mobilization of reserves of low molecular antioxidants, particularly glutathione, as well as "structural antioxidant", due to the content of readily oxidizable lipid (phosphoethanolamine) and lipids that are resistant to oxidation (phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyeline).
Biocrystallomics Methods in Estimation of the Action of Different Stress Factors
A.K. Martusevich, A.A. Martusevich, L.K. Kovaleva
Background: it is well-known that in critical conditions the general response on stimulation is common adaptation syndrome, which includes the mobilization of organism reserves and restructuring of homeostatic mechanisms. However, the action of particular agents has some specific features even under the universal adaptive response. This determines relevant features of the response of the organism, which transform the manifestation of the adaptation syndrome. Aim: The aim of this investigation is study of action of short-term physical load and epinephrine administration on crystallogenic properties of rats’ blood serum. Results: it is stated that swimming and epinephrine administration causes increasing of crystallogenic activity of rats’ blood serum. This trend is more pronounced for the first impact. In addition, both factors increase the degree of destruction of elements of the sample. Maximal elevation of facia destruction degree was fixed for the administration of epinephrine. Conclusion: we show the uniformity of response of the organism to stress stimuli of different etiology, which is manifested in the development of typical pathological processes implemented by a single algorithm regardless of the primary initiating agent.
Protection Against Fusarium Head Blight: Important Defense Mechanisms Studied in Three Regenerated Egyptian Wheat Cultivars
R.A. Hassanein, H.A. Hashem, A.H. Fahmy, A.S. Ibrahim, O.M. El Shihy, E.A. Qaid
Fusarium graminearum is one of the major global pathogens of cereals and is considered the main causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease in wheat. F. graminearum leads to severe losses in grain yield and quality of wheat. In the present study, immature embryos of three Egyptian wheat cultivars (Giza 164, Sids 1 and Bani Suef 6) have been used to highlight the physiological changes in wheat plants in response to treatment with different concentrations of Fugal Culture Filtrate (5%, 10%, 20% and 40%). Samples were taken at 5, 10 and 15 days after inoculation. The three studied wheat cultivars exhibited different responses for inoculation with different concentrations of FCF. However, inoculation with 20% FCF significantly increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase) in shoots of wheat cultivars compared with uninoculated ones. In addition, proline and secondary metabolites (total phenol and flavonoids) significantly increased throughout the experimental period. Our results also proved that in addition to the common protective mechanisms detected in all the infected cultivars there are cultivar – dependent physiological changes exhibited by wheat plant during abiotic stress.
Flavonoids in Adaptation of Begonia grandis Dryander subsp. grandis Introduced in West Siberia (Novosibirsk)
Karpova E.A., Fershalova T.D., Petruk A.A.
he dynamics of flavonoids (flavones and flavonols) in leaves of Begonia grandis Dryander subsp. grandis plants introduced in Western Siberia (Central Siberian Botanical Garden, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk) during the growing season in the greenhouse and the open ground were studied for the first time. The ranges of flavonoid fractions and individual flavonoids contents in a favorable environment and during periods of temperature drops and frost were established. Under favorable conditions in the greenhouse and in the open ground B. grandis subsp. grandis leaves were characterized by relatively low content of the sum of flavonoids (up to 10.1 mg/g). During periods of temperature drops in the greenhouse it was decreased (down to 5.2 mg/g), and in conditions of more considerable temperature drops and frost in open ground it was increased by several times (up to 28.3 mg/g). During the period of the action of stress factors content of the sum of flavonoid aglycones in the leaves was increased both in the greenhouse (including quercetin, luteolin) and in the open ground (including quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin), in the open ground content of major constituent, luteolin 8-C-glucoside (orientin), was increased. The most significant transformations during the growing season were observed in the O-glycosides and free aglycones fractions, their contents of compounds and composition were varied. Four O-glycosides, including isoquercitrin, are detected only in the leaves of open ground plants.
Features of Localization of ARG-X Protease-processing in the Suprastructures of Interphase Chromatin under Conditions of Cell Cycle Arrest by Sodium Butyrate, upon Induction of Growth Morphogenesis of Mature Embryos of Winter and Spring Wheat
Ivanov R.S., Ivanova E.A., Vafina G.H.
A fundamental property of many organisms is the ability to feel, to assess direction of the signal action and respond to the environmental conditions. It is known that chromatin plays a major role in organizing the regulation of gene activity. However, our understanding of how state of the suprastructure organization of chromatin and its proteins reacts not only to changes in the environment, but also on the development of specific signals remains largely unclear. In the course of this work, we have analyzed the result of the various ways of chromatin modifications: the regulatory Arg-X protease-processing and inhibition of protein deacetylation with sodium butyrate. Sodium butyrate causes cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase, and promotes of duration of the transcriptional activity of chromatin. Experiments on molecular-genetic state of the chromatin matrix were carried out at the induction of growth morphogenesis in the physiological period of active water absorption of mature seeds and wheat germs, which were purposefully transformed and formed in different environmental conditions. During focused, long-term transforming of spring wheat Artemovka into winter wheat Mironovskaya 808 and the last of them again into Mironovskaya Spring wheat while stopping of the cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase, mainly occurs the active Arg-X protease-processing at the level of non-histone proteins, and linker histones of suprastructures chromatin. We assume that the regulatory proteolytic processing and prolongation of acetylation of proteins can be interconnected in the regulation of conformational transitions of chromatin at the different levels of its organization: both suprastructures and at the more profound proteomic level of non-histone and histone blocks, and have its peculiarities during the period of transcriptional activation. We hope that the study peculiarities of locations of regulatory proteolysis in the conditions of inhibition of deacetylation in spring and winter forms of wheat can give a new possibility for understanding the epigenetic code of plants in order to increase crop yields and quality.
Ecological-biological Aspects of Stipa krylovii Roshev Adaptation at the Initial Stages of Ontogenesis
N.S. Chistyakova, N.P. Larina, М.А. Rachenko
Xerophytic cereal Stipa krylovii Roshev is interesting as a relic with extensive capabilities to adapt to severe climatic conditions of Eastern Zabaikal’ye, which allows it to occupy a vast areal. The species under study is characterized by distinctive ecological-biological peculiarities, which are underpinned by not only distribution, but historical establishment of the species. The primary goal of the research was to study ecological-biological peculiarities of adaptation of wild cereal Stipa krylovii to the habitat in Eastern Zabaikal’ye. According to the observations, Stipa krylovii is characterized by late development rate coinciding with the period of optimal heat and moisture availability. Seed embryos have a well-developed scutellum, distinct structures and well differentiated embryo axis. The studies identified no lateral or secondary roots in the cereal. In nature, seeds of S. krylovii are characterized by profound organic peace period, which persists in the course of sprouting under optimal conditions. Peace period of S. krylovii caryopses is likely to be due to the presence of sprouting inhibitors and is overcome in moist autumn period. Seed viability was determined under various soil moisture parameters up to its complete water capacity; the impact of moisture content on seed sprouting rate was studied. The results of the tests on caryopses sprouting with various moisture content demonstrated that at minimum moisture content (10%) S. krylovii forms epidermal hairs on coleorhiza; 30% of soil water content is enough for growth activation, viability and sprouting rate of this cereal, which is due to its xerophytic nature. This morphological peculiarity is likely to ensure in nature sprouting of these species in early spring, when soil contain minimum water. Intensity of the initial growth was determined by a number of parameters: rate of change in linear growth of trunk and root parts of the embryo, growth of dry substance of plantlets and roots (4-th and 6-th days of sprouting). Thus, characteristic morphological peculiarities in cereal structure play a certain role in adapting sprouting seeds to moisture deficit; so embryos of the species may be supposed to have their morphological mechanisms of regulating moisture absorption. Study of individual embryo parts demonstrates potential ecological-biological abilities of embryos to sprout with lack and excess of moisture.
Photosynthetic Pygments Content and Growth of Microalga Plagioselmis prologa (Cryptophyta) Under Low Salinity
Zh.V. Markina, N.A. Aizdaicher
Low salinity influence on chlorophyll a and carotinoid content and growth of microalgae Plagioselmis prologa (Cryptophyta) was studied. It were shown, that photosynthetic content decreased under salinity 24‰, compare with control (32‰), but alga growth didn’t affected. Salinity reduction to 16‰ provoked more significant lowering of the parameters compared with control. Salinity 8‰ lead to the most negative effect on the alga.
The Estimation of the Antioxidant Enzymes Activity in Representatives of Different Populations of Lymnaea stagnalis Differ in the Degree of Infestation Under Temperature Stress
Axenov-Gribanov D.V., Khomich A.S., Bodilovskaya O.A., Kondratieva E.S., Lubyaga Y.A., Shatilina Z.M., Emshanova V.A., Golubev A.P.
The aim of this study was to assess the impact of effects of thermal stress and parasitic infestation on the activity of antioxidant enzymes (peroxidase, catalase and glutathione S-transferase) in different populations of wide-spread species of pulmonate mollusk Lymnaea stagnalis from water bodies with different levels of anthropogenic pollution in Belarus - unpolluted Narach Lake and polluted Chizhovsky reservoir. There are several differences were found under thermal stress exposition (35 °С). In non infected mollusсs of both populations the peroxidase activity decreased and activity of catalase increased. An activity of glutathione S-transferase increased in non infested mollusks that inhabit polluted Chizhovsky reservoir.
Study of Remontant Raspberry Frost Resistance
Pushchina M.Yu., Rachenko M.A.
In this paper we consider the second component of remontant raspberry cold hardiness - frost resistance, namely the ability of this raspberry type to tolerate the lowest temperature. Series of artificial freezing was carried out to check the frost-resistance. According to the data obtained the most frost-resistant varieties of remontant raspberries were detected. The critical low temperature for all studied varieties and forms of remontant raspberries was estimated.