Research of fundamental molecular and genetic processes of plant interaction with the environment, is a progressive field of understanding the fundamental problems of stress supramolecular biochemistry of developmental biology. The purpose of the work was the analysis of localization shielded to protease processing proteins of suprastructures of interphase chromatin matrix in the conditions of adaptation during vegetative phase of wheat to stressful environment factors. It is shown that in the conditions of perennial adaptation to cold shock of wheat at the level of chromatin suprastructures tightly bound to the nuclear matrix there is a total shielding of arginine-X sites to protease-processing. Perhaps these are zones that affect to the architecture organization of the cell nucleus that can help to survive in complex environmental conditions. According to the priorities in the study of agricultural plants, put forward by EPIC (The Epigenomics of Plants International Consortium) in 2011 for the next decade, was included the point of necessity to understand the molecular basis of the interactions of genotype and environment that change the characteristics of plants in different conditions of the environment. These data will be useful for those who involved in the development of mathematical logic schemes of the theory and practice of biological specificity, and it could be included in the ontology of the stages plant growth and development.
Cytokinin and Auxin Participation in Nodulation Process Regulation in Legumes
Glyan’ko А.К., Ischenko A.A.
The article summarizes the data on physiological role of phytohormones - cytokinin and auxin - in initiation of root cortical cells division resulting in formation of root nodule primordium and its further organogenesis. High level of cytokinin and low level of auxin have been proven to be a prerequisite for this process. The mechanism providing the increase in cytokinin : auxin ratio is linked to inhibiting auxin transport from aerial organs to the root with the involvement of cytokinin signaling. Decrease in cytokinin : auxin ratio at the background of inhibiting cytokinin signaling initiates formation of lateral roots. Alternative role of rhizobial Nod-factor, cytokinin and flavonoids in root nodule organogenesis is discussed. Schemes of reactions and compounds participating in initiating of nodule primordium and lateral roots formation are presented.
The Influence of Trematode Invasion on the Thermoresistance of Lymnaea stagnalis (Gastropoda, Pulmonata) Population from the Floodplain Reservoir of Angara River
Golubev A.P., Bodilovskaya O.A., Khomich A.S., Korotchikova N.V., Vereshchagina K.P., Lubyaga Y.A., Shchapova E.P., Shatilina Z.M., Axenov-Gribanov D.V.
The average terms (AT) of survival at 35°C in matured Lymnaea stagnalis with different levels of trematode invasion have been determined. There were noninvaded individuals from a natural population of L. stagnalis and laboratory culture; poorly (rear sporocysts and rediae) and heavily invaded (numerous cercariae) ones from a natural population. The AT values for both noninvaded groups were practically identical (31.6 and 32.4 hours, respectively). The AT values for the heavily invaded ones (18.0 hours) were significantly lower (p < 0.01) than for all of groups which mentioned above. The AT value for the non-selected sample from a natural population (22.5 hours) was rather low because of their strong infestation of mollusks (up to 84.6%) with cercaria. Obviously, the thermoresistance of natural L. stagnalis populations is largely determined both by the shares of invaded mollusks and the stages of trematode life cycle in them.
Genetic Analysis for Some of Morphological Traits in Bread Wheat under Drought Stress Condition Using Generations Mean Analysis
Abedi Jamileh, Baghizadeh Amin, Mohammadi-Nejad Ghasem
Perception of genes action controlling of quantitative traits is very important in genetic breeding methods the plant populations. to study and estimate the parameters of genetic and appointment the best genetically model for justification the genetic changing some of traits the bread wheat under drought stress condition, parents (P1 & P2) and F3, F4, F5 generations together the four control cultivars (Kharchia, Gaspard, Moghan and Mahuti) were evaluated by generation mean analysis using a agoment design including six blocks. Generation mean analysis was performed for all traits with Mather and Jinks model using joint scaling test. Three parameter model [m d h] provided the best fit for all traits expect harvest index, main spike grain weight, number of grain per plant, Total spike weight of plant with significant at 5% and 1% levels . Though additive and dominance effect both had interfered in controlling often the traits but with attention to difference effects and variety component was determined that dominance is more impressive than additive effect for traits of number of tiller, main spike weight, grain yield and grain number of main spike. Therefore will benefit using of these traits in the collection and to improve these traits hybridization would be much efficient than the selection strategies. In this study additive × additive epistasis effect only observed for traits of Total spike weight of plant, number of grain per plant, main spike grain weight and harvest index and other traits hadn’t any epistasis effect that it was demonstration lack of existence the genes reciprocal effect in the inheritance studied traits. Therefore we can suggest that the selection strategies perform in terminal generations and additive × additive epistasis effect would be confirmed in selection under self-pollination condition.
Nonlinear Allometric Equation for Crop Response to Soil Salinity
Misle E., Kahlaoui B.
Crop response to soil salinity has been extensively studied, from empirical works to modelling approach, being described by different equations, first as a piecewise linear model. The equation employed can differ with actual response, causing miscalculation in practical situations, particularly at the higher extremes of the curve. The aim of this work is to propose a new equation, which allows determining the full response to salinity of plant species and to provide a verification using different experimental data sets. A new nonlinear equation is exposed supported by the allometric approach, in which the allometric exponent is salinity-dependent and decreases with the increase in relative salinity. A conversion procedure of parameters of the threshold-slope model is presented; also, a simple procedure for estimating the maximum salinity (zero-yield point) when data sets are incomplete is exposed. The equation was tested in a wide range of experimental situations, using data sets from published works, as well as new measurements on seed germination. The statistical indicators of quality (R 2, absolute sum of squares and standard deviation of residuals) showed that the equation accurately fits the tested empirical results. The new equation for determining crop response to soil salinity is able to follow the response curve of any crop with remarkable accuracy and flexibility. Remarkable characteristics are: a maximum at minimum salinity, a maximum salinity point can be found (zero-yield) depending on the data sets, and a meaningful inflection point, as well as the two points at which the slope of the curve equals unity, can be found.
Physiological Consequences of Genetic Transformation: Result of Target Gene Expression or Stress Reaction?
Enikeev A.G., Kopytina T.V., Maximova L.A., Nurminskaya Yu.V., Shafikova T.N., Rusaleva T.M., Fedoseeva I.V., Shvetsov S.G.
The transgenic and non-transgenic tobacco cell cultures were analyzed for resistance to abiotic and biotic stress. The different physiological reaction of cell culture depending on T-DNA structure (or transgen structure) was observed. The cell culture transformed by disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciense A699 with pCNL 65 nptII demonstrated the same stress-resistance as non-transgenic control cell culture. The cell culture transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciense LBA 4400 pBiCaMV nptII + hsp101 showed a raised stress-resistance to high temperature, high KF concentration, and to the action of Clavibacter michiganensis ssp sepidonicus . Obviously, the expression of transferred arabodopsis gene hsp101 provides protection properties of transgenic cell culture under the influence of various stress factors. Moreover, that agrobacterial transformation as previous stress-factor is supposed to make a contribution to formation of transgenic cell culture cross-resistance.