The present study was aimed to study the influence of salt stress on the proteomic profiles of Cicer arietinum L. by using SDS-PAGE. Seedlings of Cicer arietinum were exposed to different salt concentrations (4%, 6%, 8% and 10%) of NaCl. Multiple regions of actively stained system were obtained for SDS-PAGE. On 15th day, a total of 79 bands were observed and their RM values ranged from 0.011 to 0.988. Based on the occurrence and non-occurrence of the proteins in the gel system, the protein profiles were classified in to three categories viz., salt tolerant proteins, salt inducible proteins and salt sensitive proteins.
Salicylic Acid Ameliorates the Effects of Oxidative Stress Induced by Water Deficit in Hydroponic Culture of Nigella sativa
Kabiri Rozita, Farahbakhsh Hassan, Nasibi Fatemeh
Osmotic stress associated with drought, and salinity is a serious problem that inhibits the growth of plants, mainly due to disturbance of the balance between production of ROS and antioxidant defense and causing oxidative stress. The results obtained in the last few years strongly prove that salicylic acid could be a very promising and protective compound for the reduction of biotic and abiotic stresses in sensitive of crops, because under certain conditions, it has been found to mitigate the damaging effects of various stress factors in plants. In this research, salicylic acid was used in control, and drought stressed plants, and the role of this compound in reduction of oxidative damages in Nigella plant was investigated. Data presented in this study indicated that SA application through the root medium brought on the increased levels of drought tolerance in black cumin seedlings. Plants pre-treated with SA exhibited slight injury symptoms whereas those that were not pre-treated with SA had moderate damage and lost considerable portions of their foliage. SA very profoundly inducing the activity of CAT, APX and GPX in plants, which led to reduction in H2O2 content, lipid peroxidation (MDA) and LOX activity so it seems that the application of SA greatly improves the dehydration tolerance through elevated activities of antioxidant systems or may be the expression of genes encoding some ROS-scavenging enzymes under drought stress, which would maintain the redox homeostasis and integrity of cellular components.
Use of serum gamma glutamyl transferase as a biomarker of stress and metabolic dysfunctions in Rathi cattle of arid tract in India
Kataria N., Kataria A.K.
The investigation was carried out to determine serum gamma glutamyl transferase enzyme as a biomarker of stress and metabolic dysfunctions in Rathi cattle of arid tract in India. Blood samples were collected to harvest serum from healthy male and female, drought affected, ketotic cows, recently aborted cows, cows with diarrhoea, cows with traumatic pericarditis, calves with urinary calculi, cows affected with urea poisoning and cows affected with acidosis. The mean values of γ glutamyl transferase showed significant variations (p≤0.05) according to sex and age in the healthy group of animals. The normal range in healthy animals was from 12 to 34 UL-1. In affected group an average 23.69 times rise in the value was observed from that of healthy group. Cows affected with urea poisoning and acidosis were having highest mean values whereas drought affected animals were having least value. It was concluded that present study attempted to provide a new insight about an old enzyme. As the number of animals in the present study was statistically sufficient therefore the mean value of healthy group can be used as reference value for γ GT in Rathi cattle and other cattle breeds which can help to interpret the variations of serum γ GT in various metabolic diseases of cattle.
Effect of NaCl priming duration and concentration on germination behavior of Tunisian safflower
Elouaer Mohamed Aymen, Cherif Hannachi
Priming is an effective technique that improves germination of several crop species. That's why; this study was carried in order to evaluate the effect of NaCl seed priming techniques on germination and early growth of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). Safflower seeds were primed with four concentrations of NaCl as priming media (5, 10, 15 and 20 g/l) for 12, 24 and 36 hours. Results indicated that different priming concentrations and duration have significant on total germination percentage, mean germination time, germination index and coefficient of velocity of safflower seeds. It was also observed that 12 h priming duration had the most effect on studied traits as 5 g/l priming concentration treatment. In general, primed seeds showed better performance than control (non primed seeds) in all studied parameters.
Effect of iron dusts on physiological responses of gram seedlings (Cicer arietinum L.) under laboratory conditions
Das C.R., Bhaumik R., Mondal N.K.
A laboratory experiments was conducted for the assessment of physiological and biochemical responses of iron dust under the influence of different pH levels (6.5, 5.0, 3.0) and two concentration of iron dust (0.1 mg and 0.6 mg) with two particle size (100 µm and 300 µm) sprayed on the Cicer arietinum L. seed surface for fifteen day exposure. Observation was made on germination percentage and germination rate, vigour index, % phytotoxicity of root and shoot, chlorophyll, sugar, protein and proline content in both treated and control plant. The present results revealed that the seed color changes to brown under iron stress. The lower germination percentage and germination rate gradually decrease with pH of the medium but both the parameters were not significantly affected by the iron dust. Moreover higher % phytotoxicity was observed under all treatments compared to control and also lower values of this parameter were recorded in shoot than root. The reduction trend in chlorophyll and protein content was recorded at low pH but reverse result was recorded for sugar. Moreover highest proline was recorded under highly acidic condition.
Enzyme activity, hormone concentration in tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri) during cold acclimation
Zhang lin, Zhu Wanlong, Wang Zhengkun
Environmental factors play an important role in the seasonal adaptation of body mass and thermogenesis in wild small mammals. The tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri), is a unique species of small mammals which is origin of island in the Oriental realm. The present study was to test the hypothesis that ambient temperature was a cue to induce adjustments in body mass, energy intake, metabolism, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in brown adipose tissue (BAT), and other biochemical characters of T. belangeri during cold exposure about 21 days. Our data demonstrate that cold acclimation induced a remarkable increase in body mass, a significant increase in energy intake and metabolic rate, and high expression of UCP1 in BAT of T. belangeri. Cold acclimation induced an increase in cytochrome c oxidase (COX) and Thyroidhormones (T3/T4). These data supported that T. belangeri increased the body mass and increased energy intake and expenditure under cold acclimation. Increased expression of UCP1 was potentially involved in the regulation of energy metabolism and thermogenic capacity following cold acclimation. And it through changes in enzyme activity and hormone concentration under cold acclimation, and suggested temperature changes play an important role in the regulation of thermogenic capacity in tree shrew.
Effect of hydrogen peroxide and thiourea on fluorescence and tuberization of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)
Mani F., Bettaieb T., Zheni K., Doudech N., Hannachi C.
The aim of this study is to determine the effect of hydrogen peroxide and thiourea on potato crop (quantum yield (Fv/ Fm), chlorophyll content, tuber diameter, tuber number and total tuber yield). The concentrations of these two chemicals are hydrogen peroxide: 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mM, and thiourea : 0, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 mM. The experiment was conducted in the farm of Chott- Mariem Institute during three months using variety 'Spunta' and arranged in a completely randomized block with three replications. Results show that there is no significant difference in tuber diameter between treatments and among the same treatment. However, tuber yield is significantly increased by 20 % by thiourea (250 mM). Maximum total yield was obtained at this concentration (810 g/plant). In addition, application of thiourea (500 and 750 mM) results in a significantly higher number of tubers number (5.7 and 5.2 respectively). In contrast, treatment with hydrogen peroxide brings about similar tuber yields. Although, application of hydrogen peroxide at low concentration (20 mM), decreases chlorophyll content and stresses plants, application of thiourea increases chlorophyll content, and improve quantum yield especially when it is applied at 250 mM.
Induction of Heat Resistance in Wheat Coleoptiles by 4-Hydroxybenzoic Acid: Connection with the Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species
Yastreb T.O., Kolupaev Yu.Ye., Vayner A.O.
The effect of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HBA) on resistance of coleoptiles of 4-day-old etiolated seedlings of wheat (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Elegiya) to damaging heating (10 min at 43°C) and possible dependence of this effect on changes in the activities of enzymes producing and scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) were investigated. Treatment of coleoptiles with 10 µM 4-HBA resulted in enhancing of superoxide anion-radical generation and maintaining of hydrogen peroxide content there in. Increasing of the rate of ROS production was significantly suppressed by inhibitors of NADPH oxidase (α-naphthol) and peroxidase (salicylhydroxamic acid). Under the influence of 4-HBA the activities of superoxide dismutase and apoplastic forms of peroxidase were increased. The activity of oxalate oxidase and catalase has not changed. Exogenous 4-HBA improved coleoptiles heat resistance and its effects were comparable with the influence of salicylic acid. Antioxidant agent BHT (butylhydroxytoluene), inhibitors of NADPH oxidase and peroxidase significantly reduced the increasing of wheat coleoptiles heat resistance, caused by 4-HBA action. It was concluded that 4-HBA influence on coleoptiles heat resistance is realized with the ROS mediation.
Effect of stress hormone antagonists on ovarian follicular development in pre-pubertal rat
Abdullah Kalid Hamood
Effect of stress on pre-pubertal ovarian follicular development was studied. Fifteen day old female rats were administered under stress (exposed to maternal separation; 6 hours/day) from post-natal day 15 to 21 for 7 days, and appropriate controls were maintained. The time of exposure was randomly changed every day during light phase (7AM to 7 PM) of the day to avoid habituation. There was a significant decrease in serum estrogen levels on post-natal day 21 in stress group rats compared to controls indicating stress response in these rats. However, mean number of healthy follicles in all categories of follicles were significantly lower in stressed rats compared to controls. Concomitant with these changes, mean number of atreitic follicles showed an increase over control values in stressed rats. In contrast administration of Naltrexone (5µg NTX/rat/day), Mifepristone (1 µg MP/rat/day), FSH (10 IU FSH/rat/day) with stressed the significant increases in the relative weight of ovary, uterus, fallopian tube, body weight and the mean number of healthy follicles in the ovary compared to the controls. In the ovary treatment of stressed did not affect primordial follicles. Primordial follicles were reduced in number significantly in the ovary of controls and treated groups when compared with the initial controls whereas there was no significant variation among the controls and the treated groups. The results indicate that stress dose not interfere with the progress of pre-pubertal follicular development. However, it causes increased loss of follicles by atretia.
Effect of chelating agents and metal ions on nickel bioavailability and chlorophyll fluorescence response in wheat- An approach for attenuation of Ni stress
Patnaik Nilima, Mohanty Monalisa, Satpathy Bijaylaxmi, Kumar Patra Hemanta
The objectives of the study are to analyze the physiological changes, biochemical alterations and attenuation of nickel toxicity effects in wheat seedlings under combined applications of Ni ions, metal chelators (EDTA/Citric Acid) and metal ions (Zn2+ /Mg2+). Wheat (Triticum aestivum L cv UP262) seedlings were grown hydroponically using different concentrations of Ni up to 7 days along with chelators and metal ions for study. The seedling growth was maximum with NiCl2-Zn2+ (100µM) and minimum with NiCl2-EDTA (100µM) treatments. Total chlorophyll content was maximum in the seedlings treated with NiCl2-Zn2+ (100µM) and minimum in NiCl2-EDTA (100µM) treatments. NiCl2-EDTA (100µM) showed less Fo and Fm values and therefore, a trend in the decrease in OJIP transient indicates the maximum alteration of photochemical activity of PS-II in presence of NiCl2-EDTA (100µM) treatment. Similar observation was found by NiCl2 -EDTA (200µM) treatment where Fo and Fm values were noted to decline. High nickel content in roots of the seedlings was noted as compared to shoots.
Lipid Peroxidation and Thymidine Phosphorylase expression in Prostate Carcinoma
Tandon R., Rath U.S., Pande Deepti, Negi Reena, Karki Kanchan, Khanna Hari D.
Aim: To understand the association between markers of oxidative stress and angiogenesis in relation to disease progression, clinical stage and cytological grade in patho-physiology of prostate carcinoma. Patients and Methods: Case control study comprised of 50 prostate carcinoma patients along with 20 age and sex-matched healthy subjects as controls. Levels of malondialdehyde were measured to study the oxidative stress status in the study subjects. Angiogenesis was evaluated by studying the activity of Thymidine Phosphorylase/Platelet derived endothelial cell growth factor. Results: The levels of markers of oxidative stress along with the activity of thymidine phosphorylase were found to be significantly higher in the study subjects in comparison to healthy controls. The results indicate oxidative stress and angiogenesis activity increase progressively with the increase in staging and progression of disease. Conclusion: Oxidative stress and expression of angiogenesis activity points clearly that with the progression of oxidative stress there is a simultaneous progression of angiogenesis in relation to disease progression, clinical stage and cytological grade in the pathophysiology of prostate carcinoma.
Ambient Stress Associated Variations in Metabolic Responses of Marwari Goat of Arid Tracts in India
Pandey N., Kataria N., Kataria A.K., Joshi A.
Ambient stress associated variations in metabolic responses of Marwari breed of goat belonging to arid tracts in India were investigated by screening male and female goats of varying age groups during moderate, extreme hot and extreme cold ambiences. Metabolic responses were assessed by analyzing serum urea, creatinine, total proteins, cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose and the mean values were 5.67±0.05 mmol L-1, 120.98±1.44 umol L-1, 69.8±0.10 g L-1 , 3.3±0.03 mmol L-1 , 1.27±0.01 mmol L-1 and 3.63±0.03 mmol L-1, respectively during moderate ambience. The mean values of serum urea and creatinine were significantly (p≤0.05) higher during hot and cold ambiences, the mean value of total serum proteins and triglycerides were significantly (p≤0.05) lower during hot and cold ambiences and the mean values of cholesterol and glucose were significantly (p≤0.05) lower during hot ambience and significantly (p≤ 0.05) higher during cold ambience as compared to respective moderate mean value. Significant (p≤0.05) changes were observed in the value of each parameter according to sex and age. It was concluded that extreme hot and cold ambient temperatures affected the animals of both sexes and all age groups which was evident in the form of variations in the metabolic responses to combat the ambient stress.
A Study on Serum Electrolyte Pattern During Ambient Stress in Murrah Buffalo of Arid Tracts in India
Joshi A., Kataria N., Kataria A.K., Pandey N., Khan S.
A study was undertaken to assess the effect of ambient stress on serum electrolyte pattern of Murrah buffaloes of arid tracts in India. Healthy adult female Murrah buffaloes were grouped according to physiological states and screened during moderate, hot and cold ambiences. The mean values (m mol L-1) of serum inorganic phosphorus, calcium and magnesium during moderate ambience were 1.80± 0.01, 2.80± 0.01 and 0.90± 0.002, respectively. During hot and cold ambiences significant (p≤0.05) decrease was observed in the mean value of each electrolyte. Decline was higher during hot ambience as compared to cold ambience. In each ambience it was noticed that serum electrolyte concentration of pregnant dry animals was lowest significantly (p≤0.05) as compared to non pregnant milch followed by pregnant milch. Multipara animals showed significantly (p≤0.05) lower value of each electrolyte as compared to primipara. It was concluded that ambient stress during hot and cold ambiences resulted in depletion of electrolyte levels of the buffaloes of all physiological states.
Seed priming for better growth and yield of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) under saline condition
Elouaer Mohamed Aymen, Kaouther Zhani, Ben Fredj Meriem, Cherif Hannachi
Salinity is considered as a major abiotic stress affecting crop production in arid and semi-arid region. In field condition, poor germination and decrease of seedling growth results in poor establishment and occasionally crop failure. Many research studies have shown that seed priming is an efficient method for increasing plant growth and improvement of yield in saline condition. That's why; this experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of KCl priming on the growth traits and yield of Tunisian safflower under salinity conditions. Seeds were primed with KCl (5 g/l) for 24 h at 20°C. Primed (P) and un-primed (NP) seeds were directly sown in the field and followed during eight months of plant cycle. Experiments were conducted using various water irrigations concentrations induced by NaCl (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 g/l). Results showed that plant height of primed seeds was greater than that of un-primed seeds. Numbers of branches per plant, fresh and dry weight, heads number per plant, petals and grains yield of plants derived from primed seeds were higher compared with un-primed seeds.
Growth, Nitrogen Uptake and Carbon Isotope Discrimination in Barley Genotypes Grown under Saline Conditions
Kurdali Fawaz, Al-Ain Farid, Al-Chammaa Mohammad
The effect of different salinity levels of irrigation water (ECw range 1-12 dS/m) on dry matter yield, nitrogen uptake, fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency (%NUE), stomatal conductance and carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13C‰) in three barley genotypes originating from different geographic areas (Arabi.Abiad, Syria; Pk-30-136, Pakistan and WI-2291, Australia) was investigated in a pot experiment. An increase in salinity resulted in a decrease in Δ13C in all the genotypes. Increasing salinity reduced leaf stomatal conductance which was less pronounced in WI-2291 comparing to other genotypes. At high salinity level, the reduction in Δ13C corresponded to a considerable decrease in the ratio (Ci/Ca) of intercellular (Ci) and atmospheric (Ca) partial pressures of CO2 in all the genotypes indicating that such a decrease was mainly due to the stomatal closure. Moreover, since the reduction in dry matter yield in all the genotypes grown at 12 dS/m did not exceed 50% in comparison with their controls, the photosynthetic apparatus of all studied genotypes seemed to be quit tolerant to salinity. At the moderate salinity level (8dS/m), the enhancement of leaf dry matter yield in the WI2291 genotype might have been due to positive nutritional effects of the salt as indicated by a significant increase in nitrogen uptake and NUE. Thus, the lower Ci/Ca ratio could result mainly from higher rates of photosynthetic capacity rather than stomatal closure. On the other hand, relationships between dry matter yield or NUE and Δ13C seemed to be depending on plant genotype, plant organ and salinity level. Based on growth, nutritional and Δ13C data, selection of barley genotypes for saline environments was affected by salinity level. Therefore, such a selection must be achieved for each salinity level under which the plants have been grown.
Effects of Water Deficit and Chitosan Spraying on Osmotic Adjustment and Soluble Protein of Cultivars Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L.)
Karimi Sara, Abbaspour Hossein, Sinaki Jafar Masoud, Makarian Hassan
The present study was aimed investigating the effect of water deficit and chitosan spraying on osmotic adjustment and soluble protein of cultivars castor bean under field condition. experiment was carried out as a split factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications. The results showed that water deficit caused increase a significant (P<0.05) in the concentration of sugars and proline content in the leaves of castor bean. The most amount of total soluble sugars obtain of Levels (D2: Water deficit in beginning of flowering stage, D3: Water deficit in beginning of seedling stage, 0.042%) and minimum amount related to treatment control (D1: complete Irrigation , 0.014%) and maximum proline content related to (D3: water deficit in beginning seedling stage) and minimum proline content related to (D1: complete Irrigation). Also water Deficit caused decrease a significant (P<0.05) in Protein content. The mean comparison shows that maximum amount Protein related to (D1: complete Irrigation, 26.79%) and the minimum amount Protein obtain from (D2: Water deficit in beginning of Flowering stage, 21.04%). also a had cultivars between different a significant (P<0.01) of total soluble sugars. Chitosan spraying no had a significant in osmotic Adjustment and soluble protein. The accumulation of the osmolytes can help the castor bean plant to maintain the cell turgor and the structural integrity of membranes. castor bean herb is drought tolerant, the experimental our, cultivars between no had a significant different of proline and protein content. But, cultivars between had a significant different of total soluble sugars, the result show that cultivar Ahvaz local the most amount of total soluble sugars. therefore suggested that Ahvaz Local cultivar in water deficit condition rate of other cultivar toleranter, we can be with attention Damghan Climate condition, there Cultivate Ahvaz local cultivar.
Chromaffin cell activity in Heteropneustes fossilis exposed to artificial photoperiod
Srivastava S., Ruhela Monika
The study deals with the effect of artificial photoperiod on the interrenal and chromaffin tissues and physiological stress parameters in the teleost, Heteropneustes fossilis. Fishes were exposed to photoperiods of continuous illumination 24L:0D and continuous darkness 0L:24D for a short period (24hrs) and a long period (10 days) following which the histology of the tissues was carried out for morphometric measurements of the interrenal and chromaffin cells and blood was analyzed for the physiological stress parameters (plasma glucose, plasma chloride, plasma protein and N:L ratio). No changes in the physiological variables were observed following any of the treatments for short periods. Plasma glucose, plasma chloride and plasma protein levels increased significantly (p<0.05) following the 24L:0D exposures for ten days. Significantly the interrenal cells showed no noticeable change in size following any of the long term exposures whereas the chromaffin cells were found to be significantly (p<0.05) increased in size after the 0L:24D treatment for long period of ten days. The findings strongly indicate that long exposures to artificial photoperiod activates the chromaffin cells which possibly direct the stress responses. A serotonin mediated activation of the chromaffin tissue is suggested in this catfish known for exhibiting photoperiod dependence in several of its activities.
Effect of Metal Ions, Chelating Agent and SH-Reagents on Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) Root β-Amylase
Sarowar Jahan M.G., Shaela Pervin M., Shariar Shovon M., Dev Sharma S.C., Roy Narayan, Habibur Rahman M.
Metal ions play vital roles in enzymes. They may also show sensitivity to various sulfhydryl reagents and chelating reagents. Effect of some metal ions, EDTA and sulfhydryl reagents on the activity of partially purified β-amylase of radish root were studied. Amylolytic activity of purified enzyme was increased substantially in the presence of Ca2+, Mg2+, and Zn2+. Some other divalent cations Cu2+, Pb2+, Sn2+, and Hg2+ almost completely ceased the enzyme activity. Cobalt (II), Manganese (II), and Iron (III) exhibited moderate activating effects on the activity. Of the monovalent cations, Na+ and Ag+ reduced the β-amylase activity, while K+ increased. The chelating agent EDTA was found to be effective in the enzyme. Sulfhydryl reagents, Iodoacetic acid and N-Ethylmaleimide showed marginal inhibitory effect, but p-hydroxymercuribenzoic acid (PCMB) almost completely stopped the enzyme activity. The addition of thiol compounds such as cysteine could reverse the inhibitory effect of heavy metals and PCMB. The results indicate that sulfhydryl groups of radish root β-amylase were essential for the activity although it is not clear whether the sulfhydryl groups were directly involved in catalysis.
Serum xanthine oxidase profile in stressed Marwari sheep from arid tracts in India
Maan R., Kataria N.
The present investigation was aimed to determine serum xanthine oxidase profile in stressed Marwari breed of sheep belonging to arid tracts in Rajasthan, India. Extreme hot and cold ambiences were considered as stress conditions to the animals. Blood samples were collected to obtain sera during moderate, extreme hot and cold ambiences. The mean value of serum xanthine oxidase during moderate ambience was 93.33±1.11 mU L-1.The mean value of serum xanthine oxidase was significantly (p≤0.05)higher during hot and significantly (p≤0.05) lower during cold ambiences as compared to moderate mean value serving as control. The sex and age effects were significant (p≤0.05) in all ambiences. The mean values were significantly (p≤0.05) higher in males than females. In each ambience the age effect showed a significant (p≤0.05) increase in the mean values being highest in the animals of 2.5-4.5 years of age. The effects of extreme ambiences were observed on the male and female animals of all age groups as revealed by various interactions studied viz. ambience X age; ambience X sex and age X sex (p≤0.01). Further sex effect was present in the animals of each age group. It can be concluded that serum xanthine oxidase can be used as an effective marker to assess oxidative stress in these animals. Mean values obtained from large number of animals during moderate ambience will help in providing physiological reference values for future research and clinical interpretations.
Effect of controlled irrigation on physiological and biometric characteristics in teak (Tectona grandis) seedlings
Sneha C., Santhoshkumar A.V., Sunil K.M.
Effect of controlled irrigation in physiological and biometric characteristics in teak seedlings is monitored at Forestry College in Kerala, India. Six month old seedlings of Teak (Tectona grandis L. f.) were raised in polybags. Irrigation was done once in a week. Daily evapotranspiration was calculated and treatments IW/ET=1, IW/ET=0.6, IW/ET=0.3 were irrigated with 100, 60 and 30 per cent of cumulative evapotranspiration. A control without irrigation (IW/ET=0) was also maintained. Physiological as well as biometric observations were carried out at regular intervals. Canopy air temperature difference (CATD) was measured using a hand held infrared thermometer and it was observed that seedlings from well watered treatments (IW/ET=1 and 0.6) showed negative CATD whereas treatments IW/ET=0.3 and IW/ET=0 showed positive CATD throughout the growing period. Seedlings in the treatment IW/ET= 0 and 0.3 showed a significant reduction in relative chlorophyll content, seedling height, collar diameter, number of leaves, total dry weight and relative growth rate whereas in IW/ET=1 and 0.6 these parameters were higher and there was no significant difference observed between these two well watered treatment. In the case of root shoot length ratio and root shoot biomass ratio IW/ET=0 was superior over other three treatments.
Cu and Zn tolerance and responses of the Biochemical and Physiochemical system of Wheat
Kumar Vinod, Awasthi G., Chauchan P.K.
The concentrations of heavy metals such as Zinc and copper in the environment are currently increasing, due mainly to human activities. Zinc and copper are essential elements for several biochemical processes in plants. Any of these metals, at high concentrations in soil, can cause severe damage to physiological and biochemical activities of plants. Plant growth, pigment concentration, biochemical parameters, uptake of heavy metals were investigated in 30-days old wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in response to Cu and Zn stress. The plant exhibited a decline in growth, chlorophyll content, protein and DNA, RNA content carbohydrate, but proline, total phenol and H2O2 content increased at high concentration of Cu and Zn.
Comparison the effects of nitric oxide and spermidin pretreatment on alleviation of salt stress in chamomile plant (Matricaria recutita L.)
Fazelian Nasrin, Nasibi Fatemeh, Rezazadeh Ramezan
Salt stress is an important environmental stress that produces reactive oxygen species in plants and causes oxidative injuries. In this investigation, salt stress reduced the shoot and root length, while increased the content of malondealdehyde, Hydrogen peroxide, and the activity of Ascorbate peroxidase andguaiacol peroxidase. Pretreatment of chamomile plants under salt stress with sodium nitroprussideand Spermidin caused enhancement of growth parameters and reduction of malondealdehyde and Hydrogen peroxide content. Pretreatment of plants with sodium nitroprusside remarkably increased Ascorbate peroxidase activity, while Spermidin pre-treatment significantly increased guaiacol peroxidase activity. Application of sodium nitroprusside or Spermidin with Methylene blue which is known to block cyclic guanosine monophosphate signaling pathway, reduced the protective effects of sodium nitroprussideand Spermidin in plants under salinity condition. The result of this study indicated that Methylene blue could partially and entirely abolish the protective effect of Nitric oxide on some physiological parameter. Methylene blue also has could reduce the alleviation effect of Spermidin on some of parameters in chamomile plant under salt stress, so with comparing the results of this study it seems that Spermidin probably acts through Nitric oxide pathway, but the use of2-4- carboxyphenyl- 4,4,5,5- tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide is better to prove.
24-epibrassinolide enhances flower and fruit production of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) under salt stress
Ibn Maaouia-Houimli Samira, Ben Mansour-Gueddes Samia, Dridi-Mouhandes Bouthaina, Denden Mounir
Among various environmental stresses, salt stress is extensively damaging to crops production in many areas of the world. The enhancement of plant tolerance is important for plant productivity. Brassinosteroids plays an important role in the plant response to adverse environmental conditions such as salt stress. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to explore the role of exogenously applied 24-epibrassinolide on flower and fruit production of pepper in presence or absence of NaCl-stress (70 mM). The plants were sprayed with 10-6M of 24-epibrassinolide at vegetative, buds formation and early fruiting. 24-epibrassinolide improves flower number, fruit number and yield per plant, but was without effect on fruit mass and size. The detailed measurement of these parameters indicates that the effects of 24-epibrassinolide depend on the development stage of pepper plant and the application frequency of this hormone.
The Effect of Priming on Germination and Seedling Growth of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) under Salinity Stress
Jorjandi M., Sharifi Sirchi G.R.
Salinity stress is an abiotic stress which has harmful effects on germination, growth and yield of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in many parts of the world. Seed priming is a way of increasing salt tolerance of plants. In this study, the effect of seed priming on germination and growth of alfalfa seedlings, Bami cultivar, under salinity condition was investigated. According to germination percentage of seeds under In vitro conditions, salicylic acid, Vitamin B12 and distilled water were selected as primes under salinities of 0, 5 and 10 ds.m-2 NaCl solution for further studies. These studies were carried out in a factorial experiment based on Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications in greenhouse under controlled condition (25°C in day/night). Parameters like percentage and rate of germination, dry and fresh weight of seedling and leaf number were measured. Based on our research All of the treatments (priming, salinity and the interaction of priming with salinity) significantly (p<0.01) affected Hypocotyl length and radicle length and in low level of salt (0 ds.m2) germination and seedling growth indexes enhanced and also with applying salicylic acid both hypocotyl and radicle lengths improved.
Glutathione is not involved in light-, Dark-, Ca- and H2O2-induced stomatal movement in Arabidopsis
Sarwar Jahan Md, Bin Che Lah Mohd Khairi, Bin Nordin Mohd Nozulaidi, Syed Kamarulzaman Syed S.B.
Glutathione (GSH), is a thiol-containing tripeptide, maintains redox homeostasis in plants under normal and stressful conditions. In this study, we investigated whether GSH involved in light-, dark-, Ca- and H2O2-induced stomatal movement in Arabidopsis. Application of GSH and a GSH decreasing chemical (CDNB; 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene) did not affect stomatal aperture in guard cells of Arabidopsis. Dark induced stomatal closure and light induced stomatal opening but pre-treatment of GSH and CDNB did not alter dark- and light-induced stomatal aperture. Treatment of guard cells with Ca and H2O2 did not affect GSH contents in guard cells but induced stomatal closure in both wild type and chorinal-1 (ch1-1) mutant plants. In addition, pre-treatment of GSH and CDNB did not affect Ca- and H2O2-induced stomatal closure in both plants. Taken together these results suggest that GSH might not directly affect light-, dark-, Ca- and H2O2-induced stomatal movement in guard cells of Arabidopsis.
Effects of Photoperiod on the Haematological Parameters of Clarias Gariepinus Fingerlings Reared in Water Recirculatory System
Solomon S.G., Okomoda V.T.
Haematological analyses has been routinely used in determining the physiological state of animals and known to be affected by different environmental factors, the present study was therefore designed to assess the effect of 24 hours of light (00D: 24L), 24 hours of darkness (24D: 00L) and 12 hour light / 12 hours darkness (12D: 12L) photoperiod on the haematological parameters of the African Catfish. At the end of the six weeks experiment, it was observed that some haematological parameters such as Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC), the Mean White Blood Cells (WBC), Mean Red Blood Cells (RBC), Haemoglobin content (HGB), Platelet count (PLT) showed significant difference (P<0.05), while Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) and Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin (MCH) did not differ significantly (P>0.05). However MCHC and MCH were noticed to increase as the light period increased while the other parameters reduced as the light period increased. The findings indicate that exposure of the African Catfish to continuous light for six weeks duration elicits response in the haematological profile of the fish.
PERSPECTIVES OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF MUCOSAL VACCINES AGAINST DANGEROUS INFECTIONS ON THE BASE OF TRANSGENIC PLANTS
Salyaev R.K., Rekoslavskaya N.I., Stolbikov A.S., Tretyakova A.V.
PREDICTION OF THE STRUCTURE AND LOCALIZATION OF GENES CONTROLLING LEAF PUBESCENCE IN WHEAT TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. AND BARLEY HORDEUM VULGARE L. BASED ON ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA (L.) HEYNH. GENES DATA
Doroshkov A.V., Pshenichnikova T.A., Afonnikov D. A.
GENETICS AND GENOMICS OF PLANT GENETIC RESOURCES
Börner A., Khlestkina E.K., Pshenichnikova T.A., Osipova S.V., Kobiljski B., Landjeva S., Simon M.R., Nagel M., Rehman Arif M.A., Neumann K., Lohwasser U., Röder M.S.
A WIDE DISTRIBUTION OF A NEW VRN-B1c ALLELE OF WHEAT TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. IN RUSSIA, UKRAINE AND ADJACENT REGIONS: A LINK WITH THE HEADING TIME AND ADAPTIVE POTENTIAL
Shcherban A., Chebotar S., Chebotar G., Efremova T., Salina E.
CHROMOSOME LOCATION OF GENETIC FACTORS DETERMINIG PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES ASSOCIATED WITH DROUGHT TOLERANCE IN WHEAT TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.
Osipova S., Permyakova M., Permyakov A., Pshenichnikova T., Börner A., Verkhoturov V.
GENE TRANSFER IN TOBACCO MITOCHONDRIA IN VITRO AND IN VIVO
Katyshev A.I., Mileshina D.V., Shmakov V.N., Chernikova V.V., Sidorchuk Yu.V., Koulintchenko M.V., Deineko E.V., Dietrich A., Konstantinov Yu.M.