2015. — Выпуск 1
Factors causing the urgency of developing technology of capsules based on non-traditional raw materials, which are mainly plant analogues are considered. Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), starches, agar, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) are those of economic viability due to cheaper raw materials, consumer demand for the encapsulated drugs and biologically active additives (BAA). New different characteristics that satisfy a wide range of consumers, including those who do not use animal products for religious and / or behavioral (vegetarians) reasons are presented. In the course of studies complex characteristics of organoleptic, physical- chemical, optical, buffering, rheological and structural-mechanical properties, chemical reactivity indices of plant analogues of pharmaceutical gelatin, and combinations thereof to produce capsules were determined. The tested plant analogues of pharmaceutical gelatin for capsules exhibit the properties of weak electrolytes. Active amount of titratable groups in plant analogues of pharmaceutical gelatin from agar and HPMC is small, that makes the contribution of these compounds impossible when predicting the properties of the acid-base complex mixtures or solutions. Plant analogues of pharmaceutical gelatin from starches exhibit sufficiently strong buffering properties, the average number of active groups in a 1% starch solution being 1.9 mM, and the solution’s pKa of plant analogues of pharmaceutical gelatin from pectins in the range from 4.3 to 4.9 pH units respectively. Solutions of plant analogues of pharmaceutical gelatin from carrageenans are chemically unstable in the presence of acid in the solution. Acidity tests showed, that among the studied samples of plant analogues of pharmaceutical gelatin from starch all the starch samples proved to have satisfactory characteristics. The complex properties of plant analogues of pharmaceutical gelatin were examined and the possibility of using plant analogues of pharmaceutical gelatin for soft capsules was proved.
The relevance of researches is due to the need to develop the technology of whey-based beverages with high viscosity. The paper presents the criteria for choosing a method of milk whey processing; a list of existing technologies as classification scheme is included. An alternative ingredient of plant origin - orange fiber Citri-Fi has been proposed to regulate the consistency of the beverage. Due to the special processing it has functional and technological properties - the ability to bind moisture up to 13 mass particles for 1 weight fraction of the fiber. Using mathematical modeling, the optimal conditions of including dietary fiber in the milk whey have been determined in order to predict the behavior of raw material systems in the production of beverages with high viscosity in the technological cycle. Samples of dietary fiber were studied using an ultraviolet microscope with the optical system of fluorescent illuminator. Indices of dynamic viscosity of hydrated whey plant mixtures were determined by Geppler viscometer. The visualization of the transformation of dry Citri-Fi while swelling in whey was shown, allowing you to observe a multiple increase in the volume of tubular fibers. The mechanism of water-retaining process is confirmed by the preservation of the fiber structure and a significant increase in the volume of the fragment of dietary fiber due to the absorption of the whey. The conditions for the preparation and application of orange dietary fiber in the milk whey to obtain beverages with high viscosity were studied. Optimum conditions for preparation and application of whey plant mixture in the bulk of whey are the amount of Citri-Fi - 4-5%, the stirring time - 10-15 min, the swelling temperature - 30-35°C. The rational amount of whey mixture is 10-12.5%, provided that the temperature - 50-60°C, the stirring time - 8-10 min. The rational parameters and technological scheme of whey beverages with high viscosity have been developed.
The problem of raising the level of protein supply in the diet of the population of the Russian Federation is still relevant. To solve this problem it is important to investigate protein food reserves, while priority is given to a combination of vegetable and animal proteins. Fish and non-fish water fishing is paid particular attention as a potential source of protein, because of almost inexhaustible world ocean reserves and the prospects for their use. The aim of the work is the scientific study and practical implementation of preparation and evaluation of the quality of pasty concentrates of aquatic organisms, as well as health food products based on them using hydro-mechanical dispersion. The scientific background of technological aspects of the production of aquatic pasty concentrate from hydrobionts (cyst Artemia Salina ) using hydro-mechanical dispersion is presented in the article. Consumer characteristics, conditions and terms of the concentrate storage are identified. New data on the effectiveness evaluation of paste concentrate from cyst Artemia to increase the body's immune properties are obtained in the experiments with animals. The expediency of development and industrial production of cheese products using pasty concentrates of aquatic organisms is based. Regulated quality parameters, modes and terms of their storage are established.
Oxidation of lipids and myoglobin in raw meat are interrelated processes that affect the overall meat quality. The intensity of oxidation processes in meat raw material is regulated by its own antioxidant system (catalase, peroxidase, glutathione, etc.), the activity of which should be considered in the development of new technological solutions. Oxidation of lipids and myoglobin, directly affect the quality and safety of meat products, and reducing of the intensity of these processes contributes to the life time of raw meat, as well as that of finished products. The paper presents the study results of the salt curing mixture, including combination with yeast extract, affecting on the activity of the antioxidant system of the main types of raw meat - pork and beef. The basic systems, minced pork and beef being subjected to salting with curing salt (sodium chloride) and curing mixture consisting of 70% sodium chloride and 30% of composition KCl + CaCl at the ratio of 1:1 are investigated. The influence of curing mixture on the intensity of oxidation of lipids and myoglobin of raw meat of different species is stated. It is found, that reducing the amount of sodium chloride in curing composition of the mixture reduces oxidative changes of heme pigments and meat lipids. Introduction of yeast extract into raw meat, in the amount of 2% enhances the inhibitory effect on oxidation in raw minced meat.
Processing of raw materials, semi-finished and finished products with the help of a variety of aids is one of the most urgent methods of solving the problem of increasing beverage storage duration. The paper shows the state of a beverage as a disperse system during the process. In the semi-finished products at the beginning of technological chain the process of diffusion is not determined, thus the system of beverages experiences sedimentary instability. The processing of semi-finished and finished beverages before pre-packaging by various technological supplementary means leads to the formation of sedimentary stability, in which a sedimentation - diffusion equilibrium takes place. The hypothetical model of the state of beverage disperse system under the influence of technological supplementary means is demonstrated. Disperse system of beverages can be exposed in three main positions: sedimentary unstable, stable (equilibrium), excessively stable. The brief overview of characteristic features of supplementary means is presented, the latter being used in beverage technology to ensure the stability of products with the help of research data presented by domestic and foreign authors. One of the variants of classification of processing aids is the usage of hierarchical method. Structural and technological characteristics of the subsidiary materials used for durability of beverage upon storage are presented as a classification basis. Signs and stages of classification are marked. The presented embodiment of classification methodology can serve as a basis for the selection of processing with the help of supplementary methods, based on individual characteristics of the structural properties of complex means and substances involved in turbidity formation, as well as for indication of the parameters of materials rational usage in the production line as one of the fundamental factors for the formation of finished products quality.
Wild-growing mushrooms traditionally are considered one of the sources of food fibers, vegetable proteins, macro - and - micronutrients, and also flavor components. However, the composition of mushrooms includes antinutritional substances capable to selectively reduce the absorption of certain nutrients. These are primarily antienzymes or proteinase inhibitors, which reduce the absorption of proteins. Previous studies have indicated applicability of vacuum-pulse drying to improve the nutritional value in the edible mushrooms ( Cantharellus cibarius Fr .) autohydrolysis of bodies biopolymers of the mushrooms and increase of the rate of swelling in hot water. The possibility of applying a vacuum-pulse drying for increasing the content of free amino acids and reduction of the activity of trypsin inhibitors in edible mushrooms: chanterelles and autumn agarics ( Cantharellus cibarius Fr. ) is shown in this study. In addition, it is established, that the vacuum-pulse method of drying leads to reduction of flavor components content in the edible mushrooms. To study human body digestibility of vacuum-drying product further research is required. The effect of vacuum-pulse drying on flavor properties of mushrooms continues to be a controversial question.
The problem of rational use of natural resources and raw materials, and providing the population with nutritious foods is particularly important in regions that are characterized by bad environment. In this regard, unconventional plant material, in particular pinons of Pinus sibirica for the needs of the food industry will not only solve the problem of rational usage of natural resources and the creation of an additional amount of raw food, but also contribute to the extension of the range of general and functional food products. The purpose of study was to investigate protein, lipid, and mineral-vitamin complexes of pinon kernels. Molecular weight distribution of peptides and proteins was assessed by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis (PAGE) with Laemmli method. The quantitative content of water-soluble vitamins was determined using capillary electrophoresis system with the device Kapel-105", fat soluble vitamins - by high-performance reversed-phase liquid chromatography, mass fraction of macro- and microelements - by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The relative content of individual fractions in the lipid complex was as follows: phospholipids - 7.9% mono- and diacylglycerols - 6.1%, respectively, sterols 2.7% - carotenoids - 0.9%, triterpene alcohols - 1.8%, free fatty acids - 1.1%, triacylglycerols - 71.2%. Proteins of pinon kernels are heterogeneous in composition, contain seventeen fractions, which have molecular weight ranging from 66.85 to 13.33 kDa. Carbohydrate complex consists essentially of digestible carbohydrates and has a high content of hydrolysable sugars from 4.6 to 5.0%, starch - 4.7±0.2%, pentosans - 1.8 ± 0.2%, and fiber - 2.3 ± 0.1%. In the mineral complex phosphorus, potassium and magnesium, iron, zinc, manganese, and copper are the predominant elements. The structure of vitamin complex includes tocopherols from 30.5 to 32.0 mg, vitamin A - 0.02 mg, and carotenoids - 0.8 mg per 100 g of lipids. The degree of meeting the daily need of human body in vitamins and minerals, when taking pinon kernels in food, is calculated. Research results allow us to recommend pinon kernels as poly-functional food raw materials with high content of technologically important components for the production of original premium products.
Problem of obtaining mixtures from bulk materials is of current interest for various industries, thus, analysis of original designs of drum, vibratory and centrifugal continuous mixers is an actual scientific task. Mixers developed in Kemerovo Technological Institute of Food Industry (University) for processing of bulk materials are easy to manufacture, provide highly effective mixing of ingredients with a broad range of physical-mechanical properties in thin vibroboiling and disperse layers, with the organization of various leading (bypass) and recirculation flows. Presented designs of mixers have small dimensions and low energy costs. They make good smoothing ability of complex input fluctuations possible using volume dosing. Mixing process time in them does not exceed a few minutes, different bulk compositions resulting in a good quality. Drum mixers under consideration, are characterized by little influence on material to be mixed, and may be used in technological schemes requiring the minimum damage to particles. They have also small dimensions. To obtain bulk compounds with a high mixing ratio it is appropriate to apply centrifugal continuous mixers, characterized by high efficiency at small size and low energy consumption. The examined designs combine mixing processes in thin layers of diluted and dispersed flows and they have a high degree of smoothing ability of input material flows. Mixing process intensification in the designs of continuous mixers is carried out by organization of internal and external recirculation of leading flows and separation of input flows into several parts and their subsequent multiple intersection.
Confectionery goods are in great demand with different population groups, especially children both in Russia and other countries. This group of products can be considered as a convenient carrier of vital nutrients, the lack of which in the diet of the population in Russia, including preschoolers and school children is a serious problem. The market research of enriched confectionery goods has been carried out in the study. The relevance and demand of the development of given kinds of confectionery goods have been presented; their selection and recipe composition have been proved. The dynamics of the market development is carried out due to imported goods, which indicates the need for the production of domestic products. A group of specialized confectionery goods with various functional orientations was investigated. They are yogurt powder-based candies "Talantiki", enriched with vitamins and minerals; panned sweets "Dr. Konfetkin", sponge cakes and semi-finished goods with local herbs and vitamins. Their recipe composition was scientifically determined, taking into account the characteristics of the active ingredients and their synergistic effects on metabolic processes. The research of consumer properties of specialized goods has been made, which allowed to determine regulated quality indices, including the nutritional value and functional orientation. The testing has been put into practice in the conditions of commercial production. The developed products may be important for the correction of the nutrition and health of both children and adults with impaired nutritional status.
Nutrition is one of the primary factors of achievements in sports and sportsmen’s health, on par with methodological and psychological aspects of training. A special place in sports nutrition is occupied by biologically active additives (BAA) made with plant and animal raw materials, amino acids, ferments, other irreplaceable nutrients and minor food constituents - energy, fat, protein and mineral exchange correctors, considering their efficiency and availability. Biologically active substances of the food components are also able to stimulate compensatory-adaptive reactions, prevent trauma and numerous diseases in professional sports, protect from common cold and other viral diseases before and during competitions. Great attention is paid to the scientific approbation of BAA formulae, with consideration of age, gender, sport type and synergic effect of separate components on metabolic processes in human organism. New types of BAA’s for sports nutrition have been developed. The formulae have been created on the basis of data from literature and research on characteristics of active ingredients and their influence on the metabolic processes during training, competitions and recreational activities. Organoleptic, physical and chemical, hygienic and toxicological customer properties have been examined. Regulated quality indices (including nutritional value), which establish functional goals, have been determined. Considering the directions of BAA testing, the characteristic of several sport types has been given. The distinctive features of nutritional support have been investigated. The efficiency of specialized products has been determined by their inclusion into the diet and observation of specific properties, which characterize metabolic processes in sportsmen’s organisms. The developed products have passed anti-doping control. They have been included into the Federal register and approved in the practice of sport competitions.
Micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) play an important part in reducing the occupational and production related diseases among the workers of industrial enterprises. In this connection the ways of optimizing the preventive diets have been determined taking into account the specificity of jobs and the nature of effects of toxic compounds on the body. The results of research concerning the state of actual nutrition and vitamin supply of workers of metallurgical enterprises have been presented. Considering the nutritional status assessed the specialized drinks enriched with essential micronutrients have been developed. The results have been obtained in clinical studies of the efficiency of the instant drink "Vitalife" through its inclusion in the diet of workers for one month, twice a day. The excretion of vitamin C and vitamin В in the urine, the content of the products of lipid peroxidation and the activity of antioxidant enzymes (TBA - active product - malonic dialdehyde, catalase activity and superoxide dismutase) have been studied. The program and methodic recommendations to optimize the preventive diets of workers of hot shops at metallurgical enterprises have been developed: 1 cup (200 сm ) of ready-to-drink beverage made from the concentrate for soft drinks enriched with vitamins before work; 1 cup (200 сm ) of fruit and berry kissel enriched with vitamins and calcium during lunchtime as the third course or as a separate dish; 4 cups (1 dm ) of beverage from the mineral concentrate at the right time during the working shift. Products included in the program provide the water and salt balance and fill the micronutrient shortage. The use of specialized products in the preventive nutrition of workers has shown their efficiency in protecting the body from the unfavorable conditions of production. This can serve as a factor in the preservation of health and prevention of occupational and production related diseases.
Volume growth of consumption of tonic (energy) beverages determines the necessity to study safety criteria of the components used in their manufacture, having a tonic effect. Relevancy of the study is stipulated by the fact, that for the first time biological safety of prolonged use of the main components of non-alcoholic tonic (energy) beverages is evaluated by identifying biomarkers damage of cell membranes and integral parameters of metabolism, the results of which are applicable to humans. Under conditions in vivo the effect of prolonged use of the main components of tonic (energy) beverages - caffeine, taurine and herbal extracts (adaptogens in traditionally recommended quantities) on a model object was analyzed. The study was performed on 150 adult Wistar rats of both sexes (females, n = 75; males, n = 75). Experimental animals were divided into 5 groups according to the sort of components of tonic (energy) beverages consumed: 0.03% aqueous solution of caffeine and 0.25 % aqueous solution of taurine; ginseng extract; Rhodiola rosea extract; herbal extract of Schizandra chinense. In the control group the purified bottled water was used. In all groups of animals after three weeks of intake of (energy) beverage components, specific biomarkers of organ-and-tissue damage of cell membranes were determined in serum and tissue: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and integral basic metabolic parameters: glucose, uric acid, urea and total cholesterol. It was stated, that with prolonged daily use of aqueous solutions of caffeine and taurine in amounts corresponding to the content in tonic (energy) beverages, there was a significant increase in activity LDH and CK ( twice and six times, respectively) concentration of urea and uric acid in serum. There is a tendency to increasing action of AST and hypoglycemia, reflecting subclinical pathogenetically a meaningful increase in metabolic rate with a predominance of catabolic processes. In the usage of herbal extracts as adaptogens metabolism is stimulated with a predominance of catabolic processes, mostly pronounced in the use of extracts of ginseng and lemongrass. However, the metabolic adjustment does not go beyond the range of physiological adaptation - not of a pathogenetically significant increase in the activity of enzymes, or biomarkers damage of cell membranes and hypoglycemia. On the contrary, there is a tendency to the development of hyperglycemia. Some specific gender metabolic reconstructions with prolonged use of restorative components of (energy) beverages are revealed.
The use of modern technologies in meat production often leads to the formation of raw meat with uncharacteristic course of autolysis, one raw meat being characterized by a low pH value (less than 5.2), it is pale, flabby and watery (Pale, Soft, Exudative (PSE) with a loose consistency. Meat juice is allocated and meat has a sour smell. Other meat has a high ultimate pH (more than 6.2), it is dark, tough and dry (Dark, Firm, Dry (DFD) with coarse fiber and sticky. One of the quality indices enabling to identify meat into PSE and DFD groups is color. The pH of meat correlates with the loss of meat juice and color. Pork protein with PSE defect is characterized by a small amount of fractions with a high molecular weight and a large proportion of protein fractions with the molecular weight from 100 to 50 kDa. During meat production the technological solution for the rational use of raw meat with deviations in the autolysis process can be modes of heat treatment and the use of food additives. Stress causes a significant impact on the meat quality of slaughtered animals. The appearance of meat with PSE quality is associated with the animal susceptibility and its response to the stressful situation, and the specificity of biochemical processes in pork is caused by the development of a stress syndrome PSS (Porcine Stress Syndrome), the syndrome of poor adaptation. The meat quality is affected by breed, for example, hybrid pigs are superior to pure bred in technological properties and meat productivity. The meat of pigs of large white x Landrace x Duroc refers to NOR meat, which makes it more valuable. Due to the fact that the susceptibility of pigs to stress is inherited as a single recessive gene, the pigs are divided by genotype into two groups: stress sensitive and stress resistant. It has been shown that the activity of antiperoxide enzymes is higher in stress resistant broiler chickens than in stress sensitive ones.
Ensuring the competitiveness of Russian producers of food products is impossible without achieving the consistent quality and food safety. Special attention in this paper is paid to the introduction of relevant management systems at the enterprises of the food processing industry. A significant number of the currently available standards and specifications enables the management of any enterprise to choose the most appropriate variant for the given enterprise: to implement a single system or a set of systems which can represent the integrated management system (IMS). The main point in this choice is the idea of these types of management systems and of the potential, additional opportunities, and advantages that can be obtained due to their implementation at the enterprises. The responsibility of food manufacturers for the implementation and maintenance of procedures based on the principles of HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) also determines the relevance of the topic. The evaluation of management systems, which are possible to implement at the food enterprises, has been conducted according to the following criteria: solvability of problems, applicability for the food enterprises and the possible effect from the implementation (a potential). The availability of fundamentals for the integration of management systems has been shown, the concept of IMS has been discussed and the need for IMS from the food enterprises has been identified The detailed plan of IMS development has been proposed. The possibility and the attractiveness of the development, implementation of other management systems in the food processing industry, in particular, the environmental management systems, management systems of occupational safety and health, energy management systems, models of ethical and social management have been established. The approach to the choice of IMS components has been confirmed on the basis of the utility definition and potential advantages of each management system separately. The model of the development and implementation of the "optimal" integrated management system of quality and safety for the food enterprises has been offered. The basic point of it is the process model as the main part of the "optimal" IMS of the food enterprise.
The adsorption of gallic acid on active carbons of different ranks with different pore structure and chemical state of the surface is investigated. The regularities and features of the adsorption process are established. It is revealed that the adsorption isotherm of gallic acid from the aqueous solution with activated carbon of AG-OB-1 rank refers to the L-type isotherms by Giles’s classification, and AC adsorption isotherm of ABG and Purolat-Standard ranks - to the S-type isotherms. L-type isotherm gives evidence concerning the flow of physical adsorption. With S-type isotherm is the adsorption described, at which the strength of the interaction between the solute and the adsorbent is less than the force of interaction between the adsorbed molecules, which can be explained by the formation of hydrogen bonds. It was found that the maximum adsorption of gallic acid with carbon sorbents changes in the following sequence - "Purolat-standard" > ABG > AG-OV-1. The mechanism of adsorption of gallic acid on active carbons is offered. Proceeding from the structure, the chemical state and the main adsorption parameters of active carbon, we can assume that the adsorption of gallic acid has physical nature. It can take place in pores, both due to dispersion interaction (of van der Waals forces) and due to the interaction between the active carbon surface functional groups, containing oxygen with carboxyl and hydroxyl groups of gallic acid. The values of adsorptive capacity testify to the dependence of the adsorption efficiency on the structure and physical-chemical properties of the sorbent. It has been determined that by the absorption of gallic acid specific interaction makes greater contribution. It is shown that the results obtained can be applied to create adsorption technologies on removing gallic acid from the sewage containing individual components and from the mixture with other polyphenols, including beer wort.
Antifreezes based on water eutectics are widely spread in engineering and by crio-preservation of biological objects as well. Salts of inorganic and organic acids, alcohols, glycols, glycol ethers, glycerin, acids, bases, amino-acids, and other chemical compounds are suitable here as supplementary means. Part of these compounds is capable to take part in the formation of H-bonds with water molecules, the others do not form H-bonds (CaCl ), but they are united into crystal-hydrates of CaCl · 6 Н О type. In this case H-bond of water molecules can become the bond of intermolecular-cluster type. It is assumed that basic structural components of liquid water are cyclic penta- (H O) and hexamers (H O ), built with the participation of the long hydrogen bond and capable of producing the crown effect. Cyclic water clusters - short-range order of water in terms of cavity size and the number of oxygen atoms correspond to crown ethers: 15-crown-5 and 18-crown-6, sodium and calcium ions being absorbed into them. Energy estimation of water and ice (snow) interaction with the components of antifreezes: ethylene- and diethylene glycols, ethylene glycol ethers, hydrogen chloride and ammonia is made. Possibility of “ideal” solution formation with low freezing temperatures is shown. The analysis of the eutectics and diagrams of water antifreeze fusion based on the salts, alcohols, ethylene glycol, ethylene glycol ethers, hydrogen chloride and ammonia by comparison with an ideal solution of water concerning cryoscopic constant is carried out. It is established that the coefficient K in the equation of linear melting curve y = К·x + в for effective antifreezes, in terms of freezing temperature, exceeds the cryoscopic constant of water, that testifies to the destruction of long-range order of water. Penta- and hexamers of water responsible for short-range order of water pass into the eutectics as monomers or oligomers with the degree of cross linking equal to 2-4. To create effective antifreeze it is important to avoid the destruction of cyclic water clusters. It is desirable, as in the case with ethylene, to have the second component of water antifreeze in a cyclic form too. There is an analogy with naphthenic (cyclic) hydrocarbons of oil, which provide mobility of the condensed state. Promising are antifreezes based on mixtures of inorganic and organic compounds.
One of the main tasks of marketing research is to identify the capacity of food market. Market capacity, concerning its quantitative characteristics, demonstrates the capabilities of food market volume of sales. It is a common practice to distinguish between two levels of market capacity: potential and actual. The actual capacity of a market is the first level. Potential level is determined by personal and social needs, and it reflects an adequate volume of sales of goods. The capacity, which is really establishing in a market may not correspond to its potential capacity. Market capacity may be calculated in cash and in kind. Knowing the capacity of a market and its trend changes, it is possible to assess the prospects for the development of the food market. Different methods are used for the market capacity calculation, each of which is most suitable in the given context, this paper presents a comparative analysis of the choice of a calculation method of the food market, food market potential capacity of Kemerovo region is justified. The capacity of its food market in the period from 2001 to 2013 is calculated. The calculations take into account the demographic situation in the region and rational consumption norms of foods, recommended by the Ministry of Health and Social Development, what meets the modern requirements of a healthy diet. Conclusions on the data are formulated.
Brief information-review provides an analysis of the textbook for students of higher educational institutions, authorized by Ministry of Agriculture to study "Foods of plant origin" and "Foods of animal origin" by N.B. Gavrilova, M.P. Schetinin - "Technology of milk and dairy products: traditions and innovations," Moscow, Colossus, 2012, 544 p.