The article investigates the relationship between sociological thinking and utopian imagination. Analyzing common epistemological interpretation of utopianism (utopia is determined primarily as a thought experiment on the construction of «ideal types»), author concludes on the need to reconceptualize the utopian imagination in sociology. Drawing on texts of Ralf Dahrendorf, Karl Mannheim and Niklas Luhmann author allocates specific «codes» — elements of the cognitive style of the utopian imagination, traces the differences in cognitive formulas of utopian (paradoxical) and ideological (tautological) narrative.
К вопросу о социологической рефлексии: утопии и симметрия
The following article provides an overview of the status of utopian imagination in sociological thinking. The primary focus is placed on the correspondence between the general symmetry principle and utopian cognitive frameworks. The authors consider two explanatory frameworks based on the Mannheimian distinction of ideology and utopia and study their possible interrelations (utopias as ideologies, ideologies as utopias). The authors examine two ways of criticizing utopian thinking: from the standpoint of ideology and everyday life. Only the latter deals with an epistemic significance of the utopia, while its development means withdrawal of utopian imagination from sociological thinking and subsequent reduction of social order to local interactions. Actor-network theory proposes an alternative criticism of utopia as a cognitive framework. Latour presents sociological thinking as a number of «as if» experiments where human and non-human entities are analytically considered as if they existed separately while they are hybrids. The general symmetry principle, thus, is an anti-utopia that discloses the logic of the preceding sociological thinking.
Социологическое исследование политического мышления в ситуациях территориального планирования
In the article, the issues of sociological research and sociological knowledge are analyzed that are needed for policy decision making in urban and regional planning. The issues are discussed in the light of the theory developed by Karl Mannheim in his work «Ideology and Utopia». In aspects of requirements for the results of the social sciences K. Mannheim fixed, existing sociological approach for urban research are criticized. An alternative approach to product a sociological knowledge on societal level is presented. The case study with applying of methodological tools of Mannheim’s concept is presented.
Всегда ли социолог — критик, а критик — социолог? Концептуализация исследовательской критики в витгенштейнианской теории
Is It Possible That Sociologists are always Critics, and Critics are always sociologists? Conceptualisation of Research Critique in Wittgensteinian Theory The article examines the vagueness of the conception of critical sociology in contemporary thought. It is shown that different attempts to overcome the critical theory end up reducing critical sociology to mundane criticism. The author offers a conceptualization of critique in social theory based on particular ideas of Wittgensteinian sociology. This approach allows emphasizing special features of critical sociology, as compared to noncritical thought and everyday criticism, and showing its limits and contradictions.
«Памяти павших будьте достойны»: практики построения личности в утопических сообществах
The European and American cultures of the 20th century used to see the childhood as a quite special «closed» world and the child itself as a special being, who needs to be taken care of in order to avoid the «grown-up world» with all the problems they have to solve. Nevertheless, at the same time there were societies and communities (USSR, Nazi Germany, kibbutzis and communitar’ communities), which adopted a totally different idea of the subject: the child in these communities was interpreted as a partner, children actively participated in the grown-up life — in building of new world. The pedagogical strategy was being created which was, contrary to the leading European model, aimed at uniting the «grownup» world and the «children’s» worlds, which was reflected in developingcommon symbols and rituals. All these societies and communities had one common feature — they were created to realize an attempt at utopian projects. This way of life implied peculiar work with cultural memory — following the lead of the ideal. To practice the utopian way of life meant to participate in history, to continuously correlate oneself with it. How did this attitude to the past transform the pedagogical strategy? How was it reflected in everyday life of children and adolescents, what practices, rituals and games were produced by it? How were the relations built between generations? This is the set of questions discussed in this article.
От социологического детерминизма к классовому идеалу. Советская социология искусства 1920-х годов
This historical-theoretical article reconstructs the situation around soviet sociology of art at the edge of 1920s–1930-s, showing that customary tagging together of all soviet Marxist methologies under the label of «vulgar sociology» blocks all the possible attempts to somehow connect the sphere of art to existing social relations and also prevents researchers and practitioners from borrowing from fruitful sociological conceptions of that time. Meanwhile, the sociologisation of art historical studies was an important part of the modernist project. Within its framework the attempt was made to answer the question «what is proletariat» and depending on the answer given to start building the new socialist cultural policy on the scientific basis. Author shows how the practical methods of research of a public corresponded with the practices of left avante-garde. In conclusion the statement is made that the campaign against vulgar sociology as a part of a wider ideological consolidation, brought to an end the hegemony of sociological method it art analysis. The prescriptive «imaginary ideal», that was being persistently introduced into the public discourse, replaced class determinism of the previous stage. The sociological questioning about the nature of the class subject was now made impossible.
Новые медиа: переписывание или проектирование города? Кейс Foursquare и проекта «Районные блоги»
In this article we analyze mechanisms of city representation forming in New media on the example of social network Foursquare and «Local blogs» project of «Big city» magazine. For overcoming the existing in scientific discourse opposition of physical and virtual spheres we use the theory of city imaginary. We introduce the concept of «format» to compare two Moscow media-platforms and come to the conclusion about the relevance of some city description formats (consumer and discrete). Also we mark out alternatives for city media — either there should be the instance setting the language which project a city image and actions in the city, or there should be the strict format allowing polyphonic description of concrete localities.
Формирование космической мифологии как фактора развития научных исследований космоса в СССР и России
The space mythology has passed through different phases during the XXth century. My research focuses on the three main types of myth creation in the USSR and modern Russia, which are folklore, wordview and communication. This analysis of attitudes toward outer space provides an opportunity to follow the juxtaposition of myth, politics, science and society. In the early XXth century myths about outer space were similar to folklore, but later outer space become the central part of the Soviet worldview. Dreams about outer space defined the world of Soviet people. The political crisis in the USSR was tied to the dead-end of technology development for outer space exploration. The collapse of the USSR and the loss of political vector in Russia in the 1990s aggravated the stagnation of space program that followed by losing of mythology based on Soviet science fiction. Pragmatic goals without utopian imagination, scientific passion and political will included outer space in world market where myth emerged as a communication strategy for promotion of big corporations’ interests. Common knowledge separated from scientific basics and strong political values was not able to create new outer space mythology that ended up with loss of public interest as well as the goals for scientific exploration of outer space in Russia.
Парадоксы аутоиммунитета. Предисловие к переводу Эда Коэна