The social sciences have tended to emphasise society’s vertical divisions of class, ethnicity and gender while underplaying the significance of horizontal divisions such as age groups and generations. Over the past few years there have been seen signs of change. In Britain as, well as elsewhere, there have been a number of books and articles reflecting a new interest in intergenerational relations and the idea of generational inequality. Many of these debates have seen the affluent baby boom cohort of the West characterised as a «selfish» generation who by ignoring the needs of future generations, have placed in jeopardy the intergenerational compact upon which society depends. In this paper we explore these assumed generational fault-lines by re-examining Karl Mannheim’s idea of generation and the potential links that can be made between his idea of «generational style» and Erikson’s concept of «generativity». If generativity provides the key psychosocial axis mediating the critical social divisions between age groups, is it possible to see the current concerns over intergenerational relationships as a crisis in the generational style through which generativity is now expressed? Recent evidence from personality psychology indicating the emergence of a «generation me» might be considered as one potential consequence of such a putative generational shift in generativity.
Уважение к старости: социологическая концептуализация
In this article respect towards old age is considered as one of the central problems of sociology of aging. It is claimed that demographic understanding of aging should be declined because it’s the main barrier for integration of old age problems into social theory. The author suggests to look for a new definition of an old age on the intersection of two notions: age dysfunctionality and life experience / authority. Being an non autonomous condition in society old age becomes possible only within the network of recognition. Respect has a constitutive meaning for an old age as a consequence. On the basis of Kant and Darwall ideas the author describes two kinds of group respect — «compensation recognition respect» (addressed to groups, considered as needy for support; it’s connected with age disfunctionality) and «group appraisal respect» (addressed to groups «deserving» additional respect, i.e. to groups to whom we are morally indebted. It’s connected with life experience / authority).
«Детский вопрос» в социологии: между нормативностью и автономией
The article examines the problem that was posed with allocation of sociology of the childhood in special sociological discipline. Breaking off with a traditional sociological paradigm of «socialization», children are accepted not to a variable, and to a constant of the sociological analysis. Theoretical and practical difficulties which attempt of new sociology of the childhood to make of the child of the agent of social changes, to challenge naturalness of distinction between adults and children are analyzed. Failures of new sociology of the childhood contact noncritical loan of a conceptual framework and methods of the generational analysis. The author concludes that course of new sociology on «theoretical liberation» of children conflict to anthropological and epistemological preconditions of social sciences. It is the reason of that the research project loses the coherence and influence.
Льготники в городе: пассажиры старшего возраста и этика мобильности в инфраструктуре украинского общественного транспорта
The article analyzes the compound infrastructural impact of concessionary fares (l`gota) for the elderly on public transport in Ukrainian cities of 1990 – 2000’s. The author uses the term «assemblage» to trace the non-obvious effects of differentiated tariffs. Assemblage is formed by heterogeneous elements, such as cars and rails, the political course of the state, the age division of the passengers and ethical representation used by townspeople. Since the Soviet period the concessionary (zero) fare in public transport has transformed from a privilege into the form of state and municipal help to low-income population (l`gotniki). In 2005 the law required that the private transport companies (minibuses known as marshrutki) would also carry l`gotniki free of charge. This situation was perceived as unfair not only carriers but also by l`gotniki, who continued to pay for the bus travel. The author shows how effects produced by l`gota were used in the reconfiguring the transport mobility of city residents. L`gotniki with their specific status were alternately the incidental victims, the objects of care, and the decisive factor for the conservation of electric transport infrastructure. This article is based on data from a field study of passenger practices in Mariupol in years 2011 – 2013.
Тимур и его arcana: социально-антропологическое значение советской «революции детства» в 1920 – 30‑е годы
The article shows the role of the Soviet literature for children in Russian anthropological ‘revolution of childhood’ in the 1920-30s. The author analyzes concepts of Russian Rousseauism and demonstrates how theoretical focus shifts from peasant image to images of child and animal. The article dwells on two strategic approaches to literature for children in the 1920s (didactic and ludic), exposes the relation of these approaches to the conflict of ‘psychologism’ and ‘cinematographism’. Based on Arkadiy Gaidar’s story ‘Timur and his sqaud’ the author shows how the concept of consolidating secret offered by the Soviet writer is opposed to the political regime of arcane imperii, namely deconsolidating secret. Thus the article reveals the constructive role of Soviet literature for children in maintaining social solidarity in the age of Stalin’s first conservative revolution.
«Новые» технологии и «старые» люди: исследование опыта пользования компьютером у представителей третьего возраста
Drawing on the in-depth interviews we consider characteristic features of computer experience of older people. Research was made within the theoretical frameworks of socio-constructivist studies of aging and technology studies. People of the third age have become interesting to technology studies in the wake of call to acknowledge active role of users and non-users in the construction of technologies and to take into account diversity of users. It is noted that the process of becoming user of PC in older people has reflexive character and an is associated with a number of difficulties. Relatives and peers play decisive role in engaging people of old generations into the PC worlds. We also analyze the effects of PC experience on the perception of everyday time and age, as well as how people of the third age attribute different meanings to PC as technical artifact.
Помогающие специалисты в заботе о пожилых в Чехии: опыт несистемного сопротивления непоследовательной политике?
The article builds the issues of home-visiting professionals working at the elderly care services in the case regarding galloping decline of their clients’ health into the wide range of contexts presenting public rhetoric after the reforms, which were implemented in the second part of the 2000s in line with the EU directives and recommendations. The vignette story method is applied for gathering and exploring the data about professionals’ thinking related to limits and options to cope with the problem. Authors discuss specific requirements and expectations relevant for implementing this research strategy within the phenomenological approach, which frames the survey methodology. Putting forward the process of respondents’ reflexivity, the main realm of the survey, authors construct diverse trajectories of reflexivity in order to juxtapose the Schützian approach to interpreting narratives and various characteristics of professional experience.
Пожилые горожане мегаполиса и малых городов: солидарность, альтруизм и приоритеты в области городского развития
The study based on a survey of 516 city dwellers analyzes their interests in various city development programs and social involvement of different age groups in the public space of the city. Older citizens have the highest «readiness for action» rate in urban development programs, which seem to reflect the interests of other age groups (the union of the Volga cities, media freedom, the development of the Nizhny Novgorod Fair, and others). Elderly citizens are the group most focused on solidarity, social activism and altruism, and «old age» is a kind of frame that form the conditions for the reproduction of solidarity and altruism.
Стигма деменции Рецензия на книгу: Thinking about Dementia: Culture, Loss and the Anthropology of Senility / Annette Leibing, Lawrence Cohen (eds). Rutgers University Press, 2006.
Как стать счастливым: новые смыслы одиночества в современном мире Рецензия на книгу: Кляйненберг Э. Жизнь соло: Новая социальная реальность. Пер. с англ. М.: Альпина нон-фикшн, 2014.