The article deals with «constructing of the past» and legitimation of power of the Bagratid dynasty in medieval Armenian historiography. It focuses upon the use of biblical symbols by the medieval historians and the role of these symbols in the consolidation of power of the ruling dynasty. The article draws upon three sources belonging to the beginning, the middle, and the end of the Bagratid rule (History of Armenia by Hovhannes Draskhanakerttsi; General History by Stephanos Taronetsi; History of Vardapet Aristakes Lastiverttsi).
Государство и религия: основание монастырей и покровительство им как способ контроля над территориями в Армении во второй половине IX в.
The article explores the relationship between the patronage of monasteries and territory control in Greater Armenia in the second half of the gth century based on the study of three cases. The first is the foundation of the Monastery of Sevan by Princess Mariam Bagratid and the renowned ascetic Mastoc‘ in 871. It is suggested that this and other monastic foundations around Lake Sevan (Gelark‘unik‘ territory) were a means of extending Bagratid influence, if not yet full control, on this neighboring region ruled by the Siwnids. The other two examples focus on the region of Vaspurakan and the patronage of Monasteries Hogeac‘ and Varag by Arcrunid princes. The geopolitical situation here was different. Arcrunis generally followed a centrifugal policy in relation to the Bagratid kings, partly because at that time they had no direct borders with central Bagratid territories. By establishing good relations and supporting the famous monasteries, the Arcrunids consolidated their grip in their newly conquered territories
Зороастрийские мифологические мотивы и феномен христианской аккультурации в Сасанидской Месопотамии
The article analyzes two cases of borrowing Zoroastrian mythological motifs by Syriac-speaking Christians during the period of Late Antiquity. The first example, attested in the writings of Ephrem the Syrian (4th c.), concerns the case of reinterpretation of the traditional image of biblical Paradise as a cosmic mountain, encircling the whole world. Most probably, it developed under a direct influence of the Iranian cosmological traditions regarding the mountain Alburz. The second example concerns the use of the figure of Rapitvin, known from Zoroastrian mythology, by the anonymous author of the Syriac composition known as the «Cave of Treasures» (6th — 7th cc.). The discussed examples of appropriation of some elements of Zoroastrian mythology by Syriac-speaking authors provide us with a valuable evidence on the complicated and multifaceted process of acculturation of the Christian minority to the culture of Sasanian Iran.
Из келий в ханские шатры: сирийская поэзия монгольского времени
The Syriac poetry of the n-i4th centuries (so-called Syriac Renaissance) has been studied very poorly so far. One of the reasons is a traditional approach of the scholars, who treated this poetry as secondary to the strongly developed Islamic literature. The reason for changing of its character was the final fall of the Caliphate (1258) and the emergence of a new state in the area of Iran and Iraq with the Mongol dynasty, headed by Ilkhans (Hulaguids). The tolerance and sympathies of the riders towards Christianity allowed the Syriac tradition to reach the royal palace, which also influenced the poetic style. In the article, an attempt is made to show how the poetry reflected political and social life of that period. Besides, it is argued that it had its original features, which were the result of the synthesis of its own traditions and the achievements of the Islamic culture. One of the creators of this new style was Gregory Bar Ebroyo (12261286), a famous West-Syrian philosopher and scientist. His aesthetics was further developed by his East-Syrian contemporary Khamis bar Qardahe of Arbela, who used sophisticated rhythm and rhyme schemes to achieve a stronger effect on the royal court elite.
Отношения между коптами и сирийцами в свете открытий в Дейр ас-Сурйан
Йоханнес Ден Хайер
This article offers a contextualizing analysis of archeological, iconographical and epigraphical data discovered mostly in the late 1990s at Dayr as-Suryan in Wadi-n-NatrUn between Cairo and Alexandria. It highlights the historical relations between the Egyptian (Coptic) and Syrian Christian communities and the presence of Syrian monks at the monastic site in question, as well as in Cairo and in Egypt generally. The main textual evidence studied consists of epigraphical material that may be considered to be «synodical inscriptions» as they are shown to be related to the exchange of the well-established tradition of exchange of «Synodical Letters» between the patriarchs of the two non-Chalcedonian sister Churches. Four such inscriptions, dated to the 8th, 9th, 10th, and 11th centuries A. D., are compared to external evidence and more particularly to Copto-Arabic historiography. In a concluding analysis, this phenomenon is briefly studied within the larger context of contacts and exchanges between the two communities and the migration of Syrian and other Oriental Christians to Egypt
Маронит, мелькит или яковит? К вопросу о конфессиональной принадлежности 'Абд ал-Масйха ибн На има ал-Химсй, арабо-христианского переводчика Плотина
The present study attempts to determine the confessional background of the ninth-century Arab Christian translator of Plotinus, Abd al-Masih ibn Naima al-Himsi. Three scenarios are examined: that he was a Maronite, a Melkite, or a Jacobite. Given that we have, unfortunately, no primary sources that contextualize al-Himsi within his Christian environment, any answer to this question must remain tentative. Nonetheless, it appears likely that al-Himsi was a Chalcedonian (either a Maronite/monothelete or a Melkite/dyothelete) and not a Jacobite, and that he had some connection to Syrian or Palestinian Origenism. It is as part of this probable Origenist background that he became exposed to Greek Neoplatonism and gained access to a Greek manuscript of Plotinus. If he was a Melkite, it seems likely that he received his philosophical and theological education and was trained as a translator in one of the monasteries of Palestine — such as the monastery of Mar Saba, which was a cutting-edge multilingual translation centre at the time, or the monastery of Mar Khariton. If he was a Maronite, he must have had ties to the likely Origenist milieu of the monastery of Mar Maron in western Syria.
История экуменизма: забытый ранний этап
In the histories of ecumenism, its initial formation is usually dated by the early 20th century. The World Missionary Conference held in Edinburgh in lQlO is referred to as its «symbolic beginning». A quest for the origins of the ecumenical thought led researchers to find some early voices in the previous centuries, even as early as in the 15th — 16th c. However, there are Oriental sources which witness to a much earlier formation of the ecumenical paradigm of the ecclesiological thought, typologically corresponding to the one developed in the 20th c. In the Golden Age of Medieval Muslim culture under the Abbasid caliphate, an ecumenical position is witnessed to by some Middle Eastern Christian authors. In their works, the main Christian denominations are not polemically presented as opposed to each other, but on the contrary, the essential unity of various Christian beliefs is emphasized, and the ways the main Christian communities follow are claimed to be equal in value. The present article uses the Medieval Arabic sources to demonstrate that the history of the ecumenical thought should be corrected by supplying a chapter on the Medieval Eastern period of the history.
Воздвижение Креста Господня и свержение императора Эфиопии: лидж Иясу и драма во время праздника Мэскэлъ
On September 16, 1916 the Ethiopian ruler Iyasu was excommunicated and deposed. Although there is a great deal of literature concerned with the local and international political forces behind this coup, its timing has been considered only in passing. This article focuses on the fact that this event coincided with the major Christian festival of Masqal (The Festival of the Cross), an early Christian celebration, which was elevated to the de facto status of a major feast by the Ethiopian Church in the 15th century. The article analyses the coup in the light of three key Masqal themes of: (1) Christianity’s superiority over Islam; (2) imperial presence (or absence) and power; (3) appointment and dismissal. Using both historical accounts and ethnographic reports, each of these themes is explored in an attempt to deepen our understanding of the religious-cultural aspects of what may appear, at first glance, to be an exclusively political episode.
Евангелическо-лютеранская церковь и этническая идентичность ингерманландских финнов в XIX в.
The article, drawing partly on unpublished archival documents, considers causes and directions of the impact of the Evangelical Lutheran Church on the formation of the Ingrian Finnish ethnic identity in the St. Petersburg province of the Russian Empire in the nineteenth century. The 1832 Charter of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Russia became the basic legal document defining its particular goals and responsibilities before the secular authorities. One of the main ideas was to strengthen the role of Lutheranism in the life of the Finnish peasants. The church, willingly or not, created conditions for the consolidation and promotion of the Ingrian identity of the Finns. It also led to the emergence of the Ingrian intelligentsia who elaborated the meaning of Ingrian identity.
«...В весьма изящном, готическом стиле»: история католической традиции на Среднем Урале до середины 1930-х гг.
The paper shows the evolution of Catholicism in the Middle Urals over more than two centuries. The study is based on archival sources and statistical records that allow a reconstruction of the Catholic population dynamics as well as the process of Church institutionalization. The paper covers three periods of Catholic presence in the region: formation, institutionalization, and establishment, with an evolution from ethno-religious isolation to integration in the local cultural landscape. After the Revolution, the Catholics were subject, along with other religions, to rigid state policy, while practices were forced out to the private sphere. The Catholic Church institutions contributed to the preservation of the ethnic identity of the population historically associated with European, especially Polish, culture. They played a role in social protection for the most vulnerable population groups. Among other things, the data prove a particular role of religion in socially critical conditions.
«Заветы» социализма: трансформация религиозного праздника на селе Центрального Нечерноземья в середине 1940-х —начале 1960-х гг.
Celebrating religious holidays was in the core of religiosity of rural Central Russia. Before the Revolution, the holidays contained a tension between the strict following of church calendar and the specific local sacral rhythm and collective memory. The paper explores the changes in the Soviet times, in particular in the postwar period until the early 1960s, when the tradition underwent a deep transformation. The paper draws upon the documents of the state Council of the Russian Orthodox Church, Party and local institutions, Komsomol, as well as the ethnographic data. By arbitrarily moving the borders of legality in the religious field, the authorities modified the tradition: the holidays were accepted within fewer registered churches while restricting other practices. This led to the interruption of the local memory of sacred places, and thus the former organic link between liturgical and mundane practices was broken. The Festive date was recast as a secular pastime. The crisis of the tradition of holidays was completely secularized and transformed the entire peasant culture.
Дети New Аде: утопический проект движения «Анастасия» («Звенящие кедры России»)
The article explores the imagination of childhood and parenting practices of contemporary alternative communities in Russia, which draws upon utopian religious and social ideals. Among those communities there are «ancestral (rodovye) settlements» of a New Age, Neo-Pagan movement «Anastasia», or «Ringing Cedars of Russia». The childhood, taken as a unique phase in human lifetime, is particularly emphasized: children are seen as little angels and great sages, because they are not corrupted by civilization. Parenting practices are based upon a conception of «natural parenthood». Referring to «ancestral traditions», the members of the alternative communities construct, in fact, a brand new tradition believing that their children will give rise to a new Generation (Rod) and a new humanity, which will solve all the social, political and ecological problems and create a new, just world order. The article draws upon field data at the Blagodat’ (Grace) settlement and a series of interviews collected in 2010-2011.
Неоплатоническая тетрада в контексте темы иерархии сущего в патристической мысли: Максим Исповедник и Иоанн Дамаскин
The article traces how the topic of the hierarchy of the participating beings, given by Dionysius the Areopagite on the basis of the Neoplatonic tetrad (Goodness, Being, Life, Mind), and, as it is supposed, of the doctrine of the hierarchy of natural beings by Gregory ofNyssa, were developed in the doctrines of Maximus the Confessor and John of Damascus. «АтЫдиа», у; 24, along with «Centuries on Charity», 3.24-25, by Maximus, and «Exposition of the Orthodox Faith», 86, by Damascene are considered. The paper then analyzes in which way Maximus and Damascus followed Dionysius and in which way they did not. It is shown that Maximus was influenced, through Dionysus, by both the Neoplatonic tetrad and Gregory’s teaching on the taxonomy of the beings, while Damascus demonstrates adherence to only the first line.
Рецензии: Селезневы.Н. Pax Christiana et Pax Islamica: Из истории межконфессиональных связей на средневековом Ближнем Востоке. М.: РГГУ, 2014.— 268 с.
Рецензии: Noble, Samuel and Treiger, Alexander (2014) The Orthodox Church in the Arab World, 700—1700: An Anthology of Sources/Foreword by Metropolitan Ephrem (Kyriakos). DeKalb, IL.: Northern Illinois University Press. —355 p.