«Science and religion» discourse plays a significant role in shaping the intellectual landscape of modern European thought. The article covers three topics: (1) it explores the meaning of this discourse in Imperial and Soviet Russia, (2) it overviews institutionalization of this discourse in modern Russia, and (3) it presents recommendations for its further development. These recommendations are as follows: to avoid metaphysical and epistemological discussions and concentrate on pragmatic, social and economical aspects of «science and religion» dialogue; to develop studies of genesis of the conflict narrative; to practice purely historical approach to the subject without any epistemological prejudice, whether it inclines to dialogue or conflict.
Наука и религия (возможности новой методологии исследования)
The paper deals with logical and historical relations of science and religion. Science is dualistic: it seeks to learn the world and to dominate over it. Christianity sees the world, before all, as a display of the Divine; but faith is not just contemplation but also the way of salvation. Science is a sequence of falsified and verified theories. In religion, the knowledge of God is given in revelation, but refracted through a tradition, hence the importance of interpretation. Truth in science is a consensus of a competent community; truth in religion is also the consent with Church’s dogmas but it is also ontological, a participation in God’s life, a theosis. Religion and sciences have been in a constant interaction in history. The paper offers a positive strategy in dealing with these interactions — the so called «Leibnitz methodology» exploring metaphysical preconditions of scientific knowledge and finally producing a horizon for a certain natural religion.
Философия, религия, наука: модели осмысления
This article deals with the basic models of philosophical understanding of religion, those constitutive characteristics of it that determine its specificity in relation to other forms of human existence. The article outlines several approaches to the description of religion: Kantian, Hegelian, phenomenological, and analytical. The special character of religious thinking is defined by its participation in faith: religious thinking is like a meeting with an object of thought that reveals itself for the thought and thereby determines our thinking. The article also focuses on the role of metaphor in modern religious thought and shows that the metaphorical language of modern theology becomes an alternative to conceptual language. The author proposes a new methodology for dialogue between science and religion, which is based on the understanding of their fundamental otherness. The possibility of substantive dialogue is to explore the situation of human existence in the world.
Наука и христианство: столкновение способов мышления
The article considers the ways of thinking of Science and Christianity in their relationship. The article demonstrates that there are three different in understanding of scientific thinking. The first is based on «dogmatic» tradition of the Scientific Revolution of the seventeenth century. The second considers science in the frame of critical rationality (K. Popper, H. Albert). The third demonstrates the irrational base of science and therefore its closeness to religion. The «ethos» of Scientific and of Christian communities are described in connection with all the three approaches. The article shows that each of these aspects implies the confrontation with the Christian way of thinking.
Этосы религии и формы рациональности
The article examines the relationship between religion and science (or rational activities as a whole) as two irreducible basic aspects of human existence and two subsystems of culture, constituted by different systems of values and norms. Theories postulating their harmonious coexistence are failures, and we need to understand the profound causes of conflicts. These causes are not in the sphere of particular or general cognitive disagreements, but in fundamental difference of spiritual settings, that stand behind both religion and science. The article distinguishes between the two main types of religious life and ethos — one connected with «faith» and the other with «religious experience». It further distinguishes four basic forms of rationality: hypothetic-deductive (in natural sciences), hermeneutical (in human sciences), philosophical, and theological. Using these typologies helps showing the ways not so much of resolving particular conflicts that inevitably emerge, but rather of creating a mutual recognition in spite of fundamental differences.
Диалог науки и религии: взгляд с позиций современных теорий демократии
This article deals with the dialogue between science and religion through the lens of contemporary theories of democracy. Can religion, along with science, make valuable contributions to the public debate? Should scientific community respect this contribution, and if yes, then why? The article analyzes the two general considerations in favor of religious contributions. One is normative, connected with contemporary theories of democracy. Another one is epistemological, which, in turn, exists in two versions: weak or «modern», represented by Jürgen Habermas and implying the necessity of «translation» of religious contribution into the language of universal secular rationality; and «strong» or postmodern, implying epistemological equalization of religion and science. Then the article considers concrete historical details of Russian culture (most importantly, its internal binary oppositions), which stipulate the social projection of the dialogue between science and religion in the Russian context.
Диалог религии и науки: новые подходы (итоги дискуссии)
Александр Кырлежев, Андрей Шишков, Владимир Шмалий
The paper is authored by the heads of the research project «The Development of a New Methodology for Dialogue and Cooperation between Science and Religion in Russia» (supported by John Templeton Foundation). The paper gives an overview of research results. The traditional dialogue (within Christian cultural tradition), which was largely epistemological, should be made wider and deeper thanks to new approaches — in particular looking comparatively at the very ethos of the scientific and religious communities. This aspect is most significant in Russia given the character of post- Soviet transition. Science and religion are not just the two different methods of knowledge but also the two different social institutions and cultural traditions. Now the context of their interaction is the crisis of modern paradigm of functional differentiation of society, as religion acquires wider public acclaim while science loses cultural hegemony. In these new circumstances, the dialogue opens some new perspectives: comparison of metaphysical foundations of both science and religion; exploring macro- and micro-social contexts in the production of scientific and religious knowledge; productive meeting of theology with social / human sciences.
Этос истории науки: о реконструкции российского религиоведения советского периода
The paper provides a review and reflections on the book «The Science of Religion, Scientific Atheism, Religious Studies: Issues of the Scientific Study of Religion in Russia in the Twentieth and Early Twenty-First Century» (Ed. by K. M. Antonov, Moscow, 2014). The author of the review critically examines the volume in terms of the basic principles of the study of the history of science. In the author’s opinion, the lack of archival materials as the basic source of research, as well as an absence of carefully presented bibliography of the history of religious studies in the twentieth century Russia, did not allow the contributors to give professional answers to the questions they put in the volume.
Постсоветский транзит и наука о религии
This text is an extended review of the volume «Science of Religion, Scientific Atheism, Religious Studies. Current Problems of the Science of Religion in 20th-21st centuries Russia» (editor K. Antonov, 2014). The review emphasizes the need of de-Sovietization of the religious studies that in the Soviet times existed under the rubric of «scientific atheism». The volume’s authors were right to present the Soviet religious studies as an amalgam of scientific and non-scientific approaches and practices. The Soviet scholars studied religion while they were expecting its near disappearance. With such orientation, it was almost impossible to follow thorough scientific procedures: the science as such was determined by the overall condicio sovetico with its unescapable mixture of what is what ought to be. The post-Soviet transition is supposed to be a way of de-ideologization, and this principle should be applied to such a new form of ideological bias as confessional engagement, which apparently has replaced the old «scientific atheism» of the Soviet era.
«Научный атеизм» как повод для дискуссии
Константин Антонов, Павел Костылев, Татьяна Фолиева
In their reactions to A. Kyrlezhev’s and M. Shakhnovich’s reviews, the authors of the volume under discussion provide further clarifications of key methodological issues. They stress that the volume pursued academic goals rather than engaging in a wider public debate. Speaking of the Soviet science of religion, they prefer the concept of «extreme science» instead of «pseudoscience» or «normal science in extreme conditions». The volume focused on creating a framework of understanding the phenomenon and did not claim to cover the variety of archival materials. The authors outline further ways of developing the historiography of religious studies in Russia, in connection with the broader intellectual history, as well as the extension of the sources.
This article analyses what secularism could mean for the modern democratic society. It claims that secularism should pursuit three main goals: freedom (no one must be forced in the domain of religion, or basic belief ); equality (there must be equality between people of different faiths or basic belief ); fraternity (all spiritual families must be heard and included in the ongoing process of determining what the society is about). Besides, secularism should mean our attempts to maintain relations of harmony and comity between the supporters of different religions and Weltanshauungen. The author critically analyzes what he calls «fixation on religion» among theorists of secularism: this fixation leads to the reduction of secularism to the problem of separation between state and religious institutions.
В поисках определенности: парадоксы религиозности в обществах развитого модерна
This article deals with the paradoxes of religiosity in societies of high modernity. It outlines the two basic features of «religious modernity»: first, the unpredictable diversity of individual compositions of belief, which may include elements borrowed from a wide variety of symbolic resources; and second, the weakening of organized structure of the belief systems authenticated by religious institutions. This «religious modernity» leads to a number of new phenomena: the greater the individualization of belief, the greater its degree of homogenization; the greater the homogenization of belief, the greater the migration among believers; the more individual believers migrate, the more they need «community niches».
Переосмысление мотива смерти в произведениях жанра киберпанк: религиозные тропы
The article explores religious components in understanding death in Cyberpunk genre of the mass culture. Authors working in this genre tried to change and rethink the inherited sci-fi themes, which were deeply connected to a certain cultural code. In particular, previous works of mainstream art largely followed the Christian traditional view of death as a chance to attain resurrection and eternal life. On the contrary, the cyberpunk, influenced by both Oriental teachings and a certain crisis within the (post-) Christian western culture, offered alternative understanding of death as a «liberation», an escape from the inevitably imperfect material world.
Об антиориенталистской социологии ислама Брайана Тёрнера
The article makes an overview of the work of Bryan Stanley Turner, prominent expert on Islam and the author of an original theory as reflected in his papers recently put together in the volume called «Sociology of Islam». The crucial point of most of the chapters included in the volume is a thorough analysis of Orientalism and its implications to current Islamic Studies. Beginning with a critique of the sociology of Max Weber, which Turner believes to have created the modern false paradigm in Islamic studies, he then methodically identifies obvious and hidden forms of Orientalism, demonstrating how to try avoiding it in research. The article discusses elements of Turner’s theory showing its strengths and revealing its weaknesses.
Два модуса жизни в «науке о душе» XVII века
The paper deals with reformatting Aristotelian «science of the soul» in the beginning of the 17th century. The major change was the transformation of the concept of «life» which has been reconsidered to include not only the created nature but also the divine one. Aligning with the theological requirements, the scholastic philosophers of the early modern period postulated two different modes of life: physical and intentional, which allowed uniting all forms of life, from plants to God, within one univocal and disjunctive concept.
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Россия: изменяющийся образ времени сквозь призму языка. Репрезентация концепта времени в русском языке в сопоставлении с английским и немецким языками. Отв. редактор В. И. Заботкина. Москва: Рукописные памятники древней Руси, 2012. — 472 с.