Introducing the main theme of the issue, the paper is trying to abandon commonplaces and clichés and to emphasize the subjects that were not in focus in earlier research. The papers of this volume show local complexities in how religious factor played in the history of Eastern Europe in the twentieth century. The thesis that some confessions are more engaged in the nation-building than others, seems to be a simplification, because Catholics, Orthodox and Protestants were equally involved in the process of constructing national identity.
Религия и нация в Сербии, Болгарии и Румынии: три православные модели
According to many analysts, there is a general affinity between Eastern Orthodoxy and nationalism, especially in Southeastern Europe. The present article aims to draw a more differentiated picture and shows that in Bulgaria, Romania and Serbia religious nationalism developed with different intensity and along different paths. Among the three countries compared, Bulgaria has the weakest tradition of Orthodox sacralization of both nation and politics. This feature is rooted in the fact that Orthodoxy in Bulgarian history has frequently functioned as a frame of transnational belonging to the «Orthodox world» or as an instrument of Greek dominance, but also in its institutional weaknesses. In Romania, the influence of the Orthodox Church in society has been traditionally stronger than in Bulgaria or Serbia — a difference which can be traced back to the lower burden of Ottoman rule and a stronger historical continuity of Orthodox learning in the Danube Principalities. Here, intense Orthodox influence in society caused the secular elites to integrate elements of Orthodoxy into the national program. The Serbian case is the most contradictory one: it reveals a heavy disparity between a modest level of church influence on everyday life with a pervasive presence of national symbolism, due to the fact of Serbia’s being at the perennial geopolitical fault line and therefore in permanent conflicts with non-Orthodox powers.
Конструирование национальной идентичности в социалистической Югославии и македонский церковный вопрос
The article focuses on the influence of the religious factor on the national identity in the post-war Yugoslavia. The main attention is paid to the state policy of supporting some religious institutions with an aim to affect the national question. The other aspect of research is the representation of the religious policy in the context of national memory as reflected in historiography. As a case study the article examines the issue of separation of Macedonian Orthodox Church and proclamation of its autocephaly from the Serbian Orthodox Church in the context of forming the socialist Yugoslavian society and Cold War discourse.
Иннокентиевское движение и «молдавский вопрос» в Бессарабии в начале XX века
The article deals with the «Inochentist movement» in the early 20th century in connection to the «national question» in Bessarabia. It shows the preconditions of the movement’s emergence in its pre-1917 history and explores the reactions of ecclesiastic and secular actors to the phenomenon. The threat of Moldovans’ falling away from the official Russian Orthodoxy made the authorities of eparchy and gubernia to seek a compromise. As a result, the struggle with the Inochentist movement led to the legalization of the «cultural current» in the Moldavian nationalist movement.
Православный приход на иноконфессиональных окраинах Российской империи: случай Финляндии
In this article the problem of the collision of different paradigms of religious and national identity in a multinational and multi-confessional Russian Empire is shown on the example of a debate about the model of the Orthodox parish in Finland. The debate revealed a conflict between the two legal systems — imperial and that of the Grand Duchy of Finland. The Finnish legislation was perceived in the Grand Duchy as a guarantee of national identity. Therefore, the question about the status of the Orthodox parish was central for the conflict between the imperial centre and the periphery, as well as the process of Finland’s national determination. The paper shows that the Empire and its general religious legislation lost in this matter to the Senate and the laws of the Dutchy. At the same time, the discussion resonated the internal Orthodox debate about the improved, ideal organisation of the parish. From this point of view, the Finnish project aroused ambivalent reaction of the Orthodox. On the one hand, they rejected the Protestant influence and a too deep intrusion of the civil authorities into the life of parish community. On the other hand, the supporters of the liberation of parish from the Church-State tutelage hoped that a detailed description of the parish self-government, given in the Finnish project, could be extended to the rest of Empire.
Католическая церковь и формирование национального самосознания в Эстонии в межвоенный период (по документам архивов Ватикана)
Алексей Комаров, Евгения Токарева
The paper deals with the relations of the Holy See and Estonia in the interwar period. During this period, the Vatican showed interest in the possibility of advancement of Catholicism in the newly formed Estonian state. This activity of the Holy See was met with understanding on the part of the Estonian political elite. The representatives of the latter, interested in encouraging the formation of national identi-ty and assimilation national minorities, primarily Russians, believed that Catholicism would help weaken the impact of both the Orthodox religion and Lutheranism in the country. Catholicism as the worldwide religion has been perceived less dangerous in independent Estonia. It has been assumed that the country would begin the process of forming a unified Estonian national identity with a significant Catholic component. However, these plans were never realized.
Украинизаторские процессы в Православной церкви в межвоенной Польше
In 1920-1930s the West Ukrainian areas, Galicia and Volhynia, incorporated into the independent Poland (the Second Rzeczpospolita) according to the 1921 Riga peace treaty, became the centre of the Ukrainian national movement. However the political activity of the Ukrainian nationalists was strongly limited by the Polish government. One of the few organizations of the Ukrainian people, capable to maintain social activity, was the Church. In Galicia the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church traditionally supported the Ukrainian national movement. By contrast, in Volhynia, where the Ukrainians belonged to the Orthodox Church in Poland, the population was generally apolitical and showed no interest in the Ukrainian nationalism. This paper explores the dynamic of growing Ukrainization efforts within the Church, starting with individual initiatives of using the Ukrainian language in worship and ending up with appearance of bishops who promoted the idea of Ukraine’s political and ecclesiastical independence.
Конструирование василианами украинской национальной идентичности на Подкарпатской Руси (1919 – 1939)
For a long time historical Transcarpathia made part of the various countries. In a foreign cultural environment the local church developed a unique system of relations with the state, keeping intact the ritual-liturgical foundations, including Slavonic language. The article focuses on the reform of the Galician Basilians in Subcarpathian Rus, whose activity caused a collision of Ukrainian, Hungarian and Romanian nationalisms. It explores the particular ways of using the structures of the Basilian Order by the Galician monks for designing the Ukrainian identity in the region.
«Украинский» как «не-православный», или Как греко-католики «воссоединялись» с Русской православной церковью (1940 – 1960‑е гг.)
Drawing upon archival, published, and oral sources as well as recent studies on the correlation between religion and nationality, the paper argues that formal «reunification» of the Greek Catholics with the Russian Orthodox Church has become a successful «subaltern strategy», ensuring the survival of the Greek Catholic Church through the Soviet period. The article demonstrates that the «Church within the Church», coming into existence as a result of «reunification», was for decades preserving its separate identity within the Russian Orthodox Church. The «Church within the Church» did not oppose directly the regime’s assimilation policy while positioned itself as a Ukrainian and therefore as a non-Orthodox (because a non-Russian) and even as a non-Soviet. Concrete research issues are examined within a wider context of the survival of the Church in the Soviet state.
Проблема греко-католической идентичности в Западной Украине в ходе борьбы за легализацию (рубеж 1980 – 1990‑х гг.)
The article deals with the revival of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church in the 1980-1990s. The Church officially ceased to exist in 1946 after the «reunification» with the Russian Orthodox Church. Nevertheless, the part of the Greek Catholic clergy and the faithful did not recognize this act and moved to the underground. The process of legalization and revival was accompanied by the growing movement for the Ukrainian national independence. At the same time, the Church continued to remain faithful to the Apostolic See, constantly emphasizing their belonging to the Catholic Church. The legalization of the Church involved not only the relationships with the states, but also with other churches — the Russian Orthodox Church, the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church, and the Roman Catholic Church. The heated inter-religious conflict was deeply entangled with the issue of national and ecclesiastic identity.
Образ митрополита Игнатия в конструировании идентичности и исторической памяти приазовских греков
Сергей Пахоменко, Светлана Арабаджи
The article examines the transformation of the image of Metropolitan Ignatius in historiography and its use for constructing ethnic identity and historical memory of the Greeks of Ukrainian Northern Azov Sea region. The article analyzes historical and local historical literature and periodicals of the imperial, Soviet and post-Soviet periods. The analysis showed that the imperatives of modeling the image of the Metropolitan varied according to the political situation and the dominant ideology. The article concentrates on current commemorative practices that contribute to the formation of apologetic image of metropolitan and his cult, especially after Ignatius’ canonization by the Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate). The figure of Ignatius serves for ethnic consolidation and complementarity in the context of an alien ethnic environment.
Исторические корни и соотношение конфессиональных и этнических границ в меннонитской идентичности в СССР
The article examines historical roots and dynamics of Mennonite identity in USSR using the concept of an ethno-confessionality, introduced to Soviet religious studies by Alexei N. Ipatov. As a result of secularization, in the beginning of the 20th century a part of Mennonites gave up religion but continued to regard themselves Mennonites by culture, and Mennonite identity ceased to be strictly religious. During the Civil War, the confessional identity lost its traditional core — obligatory nonresistance. Ethnic assimilation and loss of German language have been forced by the deportation of 1941 and special settlement. The number of Mennonite identity carriers significantly dropped due to the bitter struggle with religion. Many Mennonites joined the Evangelical Christian-Baptists producing a further erosion of identity. After decline of religious persecutions, reproduction of Mennonite identity could take place in rare Mennonite congregations and families. As a result, Mennonite identity did not disappear but significantly changed.
«Новые» меннониты Урала и Сибири: генезис и трансформация этноконфессиональных сообществ в 1940 – 1960‑е годы
Алексей Глушаев, Вера Клюева
The article explores the genesis and transformation of Soviet ethnoconfessional communities in the 1940s – 1960s, using the case of the so called «new» Mennonite communities in the Ural and Siberia. The development of these communities depended on the extreme conditions of a transition they went through, from the traditional rural life to the urban industrial setting. In these communities we see new mechanisms of solidarity, based on inter-communal and inter-religious communication. The preachers who developed patterns of survival contributed to the endurance of Mennonite identity in the Soviet time. Yet, the communities formed in the extreme circumstances of «special settlements» remained unstable and volatile
Пол Верт: «Настало время написать обобщающую работу по истории религии в России…»
Александр Батищев и Илья Павлов
In his interview, the American historian Paul Werth tells about contemporary state of Russian studies in the USA, his intellectual biography and the prospects of the studies of the Russian religious history. Nowadays in America Russian studies and other country specific researches face some problems. Nevertheless, the conferences are hold and the articles published even in the regions, which are distant from the main scientific centers. Paul Werth makes an overview of sources helping to reconstruct the dynamic of religious freedom in Tsarist Russia. The historian analyzes interaction of religious institutes of Russian Empire and its administrative structure, national movements, and ideological climate. Werth demonstrates that in the imperial Russia infringement of religious freedom was an effect of relationship between religious institutions and political, administrative and social structure of Empire, but not the result of a particular worldview. The research of the Russian imperial experience helps to draw the more general conclusion in the religious studies and social theory. For example, the level of religious freedom is negatively correlated to the use of religion in the secular public life.
Рецензии: Зайцев О., Беген О., Стефанів В. Націоналізм і релігія: Греко-Католицька Церква та український націоналістичний рух у Галичині (1920 – 1930‑ті роки). Львів: Видавництво Українського Католицького Університету, 2011. — 384 с.
Рецензии: Parker Gumucio, C. (ed.) (2012) Religión, política y cultura en América Latina: Nuevas miradas / Religião, política e cultura na América Latina: Novos olhares. Santiago de Chile: Instituto de estudios avanzados de la Universidad de Santiago de C