This article is revised from a lecture given by the author at the Institute for Human Sciences in Vienna, Austria on April 29, 2013 as part of the series Colloquia on Secularism. It argues that there are a number of paths through which we might investigate Russian connections to the emergence of post-secularity, the collapse of the USSR and the post-Soviet revival of Russian Orthodoxy representing only the most obvious. A thus far less developed but important approach involves unraveling an intellectual-historical trajectory focusing on the influence of anti-Bolshevik Russian religious thought in the West. The article shows that after the founding of the Soviet Union, the anti-Bolshevik Russian emigration emerged as a significant vehicle for the transmission of Russian ideas in the West, contributing to the development of an anti-secular discourse with roots in the nineteenth century that was able to achieve some prominence thanks to the Cold War. This discourse associated religiosity with freedom and atheism with unfreedom. The author argues that this discourse, in the development of which Russian intellectuals played an important role, emerged in reaction against the perceived cultural threat of nihilism, and suggests that it is a similar concern over the possible consequences nihilism that has led to the emergence of the postsecular moment. The post-secular, then, might be defined as an intense confrontation with the problem of nihilism.
Социальный капитал русского православия в начале XXI в.: исследование с помощью методов социально-сетевого анализа
Иван Забаев, Дарья Орешина, Елена Пруцкова
The article examines the influence of religion on social capital formation in Russia. The study suggests that active involvement of the parishes in the organization of social work, based on the principles of delegation of power and authority from priests to the laity, increases the parish social networks, attaching more lay people to it, including those who are «unchurched». The data for the article come from the research projects conducted in 2011 – 2013 at the «Sociology of Religion» Research Seminar, St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University: a mass survey of parishioners of 12 Russian Orthodox Church parishes, located in different types of settlement and in different regions of Russia (the total sample size is 985 respondents); in-depth interviews with parishioners and priests at 15 Russian Orthodox Church parishes (153 interviews altogether); and the first wave of a nationwide survey «OrthodoxMonitor» (national representative sample of 1500 respondents).
Спонтанная мемориализация в городском ландшафте: случай ярославского «Локомотива»
This article describes the now forming brand new practices of spontaneous memorialization of resonant and tragic accidents accompanied by numerous or single human loss. We analyze commemoration and performativity (according to J. Santino) in spontaneous memorialization in Russian context and distinguish different types of it. We conclude that social injustice is (among others) an important driver in the very process of rising the memorials innowadays Russia. On the other hand we find fundamental similarities between Russian, European and American memorial traditions. The paper draws on detailed analysis of the spontaneous memorialization acts after plane crash incident in which ice-hockey team «Lokomotiv» died on the 7th of September 2011.
Старица и смерть: заметки на полях современных житий
Жанна Кормина, Сергей Штырков
In the contemporary Orthodox hagiography the special type of saint has formed — blazhennyie staritsy («blessed female spiritual elders»). In some respect this type of sainthood succeeds to traditional «folly for the sake of Christ». Yet the staritsy have their distinguishing features, and the main such feature is incurable disease such as blindness or motor function disorder. The meaning of such disorder can be interpreted as a sign of permanent liminality and the person’s divine election. It indicates that while being alive she also belongs to the world of the dead (or the next world). The creation of these iconic narratives can be seen as attempts to democratize hagiographical canon by including some folk religious motives and images. Such ‘folklorisation’ of the genre of church hagiography expresses the idea that Orthodox faith has deep roots in the popular religiosity and therefore can be accessible to common people.
Уровень мусульманской религиозности населения в Среднем Поволжье и Приуралье по данным советских социологических исследований (1966 – 1991)
This article explores the methods and results of the research of Muslim religiosity in the Middle Volga and Ural regions in the late Soviet Union. The article draws upon the sociological surveys conducted in 1966 – 1991. These surveys revealed some interesting trends that did not correspond to ideological objectives and expectations. The article also demonstrates regional specifics of the Soviet sociological school and its relationship with the ideological authorities. The surveys of religiosity of the Soviet population were, in a sense, a vote of confidence to the official ideology.
Женщины в общинной жизни протестантских церквей в СССР (1945 – 1991)
The article deals with the roles of women in the Protestant communities in the post-war Soviet Union. It contributes to a still understudied field of gender studies related to the Protestant churches of the Soviet period. The study draws upon the archival materials of the Fund of the Office of religious cults and then the Office of religious affairs of Moscow and Moscow region.
Земские проекты переустройства православного прихода в 1860 – 1890‑е гг.
The article examines the attitude of the Russian Zemstvo movement of the second half of the 19th century to the reform of the Orthodox parish. Dmitry Samarin’s paper «The Parish» (1867-1868) is studied in detail. It shows that Slavophile oriented members of Zemstvo were critical towards the actual status of the parish and wanted to see it as an independent unit though a subject to the power of Bishop. They saw it as a public institution with property and an elected priest. Understanding of the parish as a public institution led to the constant attention of the Zemstvo to its fate and the regular appearance of projects of its transformation. These projects included providing clergy with regular salary and converting the parish into a small regional unit. The author comes to the conclusion that obstacles to the implementation of these projects were not only the negative reaction of the Spiritual Department, but deep fragmentation of Russian society, which created mistrust between the clergy and active laymen — members of Zemstvo.
Окcфордское (Трактарианское) движение и его влияние на протестантско- католический конфликт в ранневикторианской Англии
The article deals with the role of the Oxford movement in the development of conflict between Protestantism and Roman Catholicism in Early Victorian England. The Oxford (Tractarian) movement and some of its leaders, especially J. H. Newman, denied the Protestant character of the Church of England. This denial gave a new dimension to the conflict. The analysis of events, connected with the so called «papal aggression» — the restoration of the Roman Catholic hierarchy in England (1850) — shows that the mobilizing potential of anticatholicism was quite limited, notwithstanding the widespread idea that the Tractarians were «secret agents» of Rome.
Доктрины предопределения в cредневековой философской теологии
The paper presents the main issues associated with the problem of predestination, outlines the basic doctrines of medieval theologies on the subject. The author focuses on the multiple dimensions of the theoretical and historical analysis: main arguments in the controversy, the transformation of its formal and argumentative structure, methods of forming and presenting reasons, logical moves of opponents.
Памяти Массимо Розати (1969–2014)
This is a small obituary devoted to the memory of Massimo Rosati, who passed away in January 2014. The text offers an overview of Rosati’s research projects — f. e. the concept of post-secularity and post-Kemalist Turkey as a «postsecular society in the making» — as well as his institutional activities — f. e. Center for the Study and Documentation of Religion and Political Institutions in Post-Secular Societies at University of Rome Tor Vergata (Italy).
‘Postsecular’ society is becoming a more and more widespread keyword in contemporary debates, within the philosophical as well as the sociological domains. Even if the word is not so new, it has gained a new conceptual relevance and specificity as a consequence of a deep scrutiny of classical theories of secularization. The paper takes for granted debates on theories of secularization, and tries to contribute to the clarification of the still vague notion of ‘postsecular society’, so far symptom of weaknesses of theories of secularization, or of a normative need for a fairer recognition of religious traditions in our liberal institutions. Working on Jürgen Habermas and Adam B. Seligman’s different but complementary theories of modernity, the paper tries to suggest a four-cells model to typify relationships between religious traditions and modernity, making more specific the constituive elements of the postsecular society.
Рецензии: Церковь, государство и общество в странах восточного христианства [тематическая подборка] // Pro et Contra. 2013. № 3 – 4 (59), № 5 (60).