Russian poultry takes the sufficiently important place in providing consumers’ demand of the population for the branch production. In 2013 poultry meat production was 3,8 mln. t, it is more than the level of 2012 by 192 thous. t. Poultry meat per capita production of domestic manufacture has grown from 12 kg in 1990 to 26 kg in 2013 at recommended standard 30 kg. The share of domestic poultry meat in market resources 2013 was 88%, it already excesses the specified criterion of food safety. At the same time the cost of the resources used in poultry breeding (feed, electric energy, diesel oil, and gasoline) increased considerably. The level of sale prices does not provide the level of poultry plants revenues, necessary to run expanded reproduction. The principle condition of profitable work of poultry plants is intensive branch running with implementation of resource saving technologies of poultry keeping and feeding, modern breeding methods, providing high productiveness, feed preservation and conversion, organization of deep production processing, strict cost saving in all production sectors.
THE INFLUENCE OF HOLSTEIN BREED ON THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND TECHNOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF THE MILK OF BLACK-AND-WHITE CATTLE
Mamaev A.V., Samusenko L.D.
Holsteins stud bulls of Western and European breeding with different linear affiliation, are widely used for improvement of dairy cattle in Russia.In this regard, it is important to know what influence they will have on the productivity, quality and technological properties of milk. The purpose was to study the influence of genetic factors on the quality indicators and technological properties of milk. Studies were conducted on the local livestock of black-and-white cattle with different linear affiliations.Control group - the line of Eagle; 1st experimental group - Reflection Sovereign line; 2nd experimental group - Montvic Chieftainline; 3rd experimental group - Vis Bake Ideal line. The highest yields of milk for 305 days of lactation was obtained from cows line V.B. Ideal - 4889 kg, which was significantly higher than yields in control group at 917 kg (P <0.001). No significant difference in the fat content of milk has been established. The protein content in the milk of all experimental groups was quite high and was on average - 3.12%.As well, the greatest content of it (3.2%) noted in the group of cows belonging to R. Sovereign line. In the first and second experimental groups, quantity of milk fat and protein was on average 163 kg and 135 kg respectively, which is also higher than in the control group. The average dry matter content in the milk of cows all experimental groups was 12.4 %. While the greatest amount of dry substance was noted in the control group. The analysis of the thermal stability of cow’s milk of different lines showed that milk from cows belonging to R. Sovereign and V.B. Ideal lines have the first group of heat stability. Studies lead to the conclusion that the best indicators of the chemical composition and technological properties of the milk of black-and-white cattle under the Oryol Region termswere obtained using the Holstein stud bulls belonging to the R. Sovereign and V.B. Ideal lines.
SYSTEM OF YOUNG PIGS FEEDING USING FOOD WASTES WITHIN THE MODERN TECHNOLOGIES OF PREPARATION THEM FOR FEEDING
Logvinov S.V., Kozlov A.S.
Comparative studying of features of feed consumption, processes of digestion, metabolism and growth intensity at pigs after weaning was carried out at traditional feeding (1 group) and at feeding by wastes of dairy industry, by food wastes and wastes of starched production in their various combination (2 and 3 groups). Methods of preparation of dairy industry wastes and food wastes for young pigs feeding and optimum ratios of these fodder and norm of their feeding were determined in the course of researches.The high efficiency of such feed being used for growing pig-wieners in comparison with indicators of their growing on special feeds was established. Economic effect of raising of one head of young pigson feed and dairy wastes to 4 - month age constitutes 66,5 rubles.
SPECIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BUCKWHEAT VARIETIES PRODUCTIONAL PROCESS AT DIFFERENT PERIODS OF SELECTION
Amelin A.V., Fesenko A.N., Zaikin V.V., Boiko T.V.
The article considers the results of field and vegetational experiments according to which biosynthetic potential of buckwheat productional process is rather high but its adaptive abilities are developed weakly to provide stable productivity in extreme weather conditions. As a result of selection the crop ability to organic substance biosynthesis is increasing significantly in favorable weather conditions. In extreme weather conditions that ability, on the contrary, is falling quickly. Sharp falls of efficiency of assimilate use when forming generative parts and its reaching the ancestral form level should be stressed. To solve the problem we are to improve activity and adaptivity of photosynthesis which provides more than 95% dry substance of plants.
THE ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF GROWTH-PROMOTING FACTORS ON THE INITIAL STAGE OF EVOLUTION OF THE WINTER WHEAT
Efremova Y.V., Amelin P.A., Lopachev N.A.
The main strategy of plant breeding of the Orel region is based on the steady growth of cereal crops production among which winter wheat dominates. That is why increase of productivity and quality of its grain is vital and modern problem of the Orel region and of the Russian Federation in general. The most important condition to obtain high and steady yeilds with good grain quality is getting good timely and complete sprouts of optimal density. That is why the problem of stimulating and inhibiting of seeds germination and processes taking place in them is essential. Today the most advanced technological method is the method of pretreatment of seedings with fungicide, together with growth stimulators application. The article presents the results of investigation of influence of seedings pretreatment of winter wheat «Moskovskaya 39» with growth stimulators and fungicide on the initial stages of development. Positive influence of the described agro method on the germination energy, laboratory sprouting, length and weight of sprouts and roots and also sprouts resistance to affection of fungi of type Fusarium, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Alternaria is proved.
EFFECT OF PLANTING DENSITY AND SOWING DATE ON THE ESSENTIAL OIL CONTENT AND COMPOSITION OF LEMON VERBENA (LIPPIA CITRIODORA)
Farnia Amin, Nematian Ali, Shariati Mohammad Ali
Lemon verbena leaves are used as the plant for injection, aromatic, digestive and antispasmodic properties. Lemon verbena leaves has a mild sedative and reputation for relieving abdominal discomfort. In order to examine the influence of planting density and sowing date on the essential oil Neral, Geranial and Limonene in Lippia citriodora , an experiment was performed in Rasht experimental farm, Gilan province, 2011. The experiment was done as a factorial on the basis of randomized complete blocks design in three replications. Density treatments at three levels: 2, 4, 6 plants /m 2 and sowing treatment of March 24 th, April 8 th and April 24 th. The chemical composition was analyzed by Gas chromatography (GC) and Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). 37 compounds were identified in the Essential oil of Lippia citriodora . The most important compounds in plant lemon verbena were Neral, Geranial and Limonene. Regarding the obtained results, planting density and sowing date treatments had a significant effect on the rate of essential oil and the highest amounts of Neral, Geranial and Limonene were measured as 23.25, 33.68 and 5.84 in the 4 plant/m2 and planting on March 24 th.
MATHEMATICAL SIMULATION OF MICROCLIMATE OF SUB-SURFACED IN THE GROUND POTATO STOREHOUSES
Kondrashov V.I., Prusakov G.M., Moiseenko A.M.
The highest significance in the safekeeping of the biological production has the heat-moister regime in the storehouses and inside of a stored agricultural produce. Existing storage technologies demand certain adjustment in each case, which can be significantly simplified with the computer simulation. The adequate model with realistic conditions can be provided with the complete mathematical description and all basic factors taken into an account. The purpose of this work is the development of the methods of the heat-technical calculation and computer simulation of vegetable storehouses microclimate by solving the conjugate non-stationary heat and moister exchange tasks. The full mathematical model of a heat-exchange is based on the conjugate non-stationary heat-moister exchange task for the whole system construction-equipment-bulk in their heat interconnection, but not for each component separately taking part in the heat-exchange. As a generic math model we consider the heat-moister condition of a semi-sub-surfaced in the ground storehouses, because in this case it’s necessary to take into account the heat interaction not only with air surroundings, but also with the ground, unlike above ground surface storehouses as a particular version of common model. Developed the finite-difference method of calculations which have sufficient enough high-speed and accuracy for engineer practice. These methods allow in short time calculate the temperature and moisture in the storehouses. Software package POSOH (Kondrashov, Kondraschov, Kokin, Tyukov, 2003) was designed for computer modeling of these processes. Examples of the simulation for selection of most appropriate construction and technology parameters for reduction of depreciation of agricultural production during storage are provided. The heat-resistant properties of above surface and semi-sub-surfaced storehouses were compared.
EXPERIMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF INFLUENCE OF COMPOSITE FUEL ON DIESEL OPERATION IN IDLE MODE
Godina E.D., Ukhanov A.P.
Unfavorable condition of the diesel engine is a separate idle mode, which is characterized by incomplete combustion, wasteful fuel consumption and increased emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere. To evaluate the feasibility of using radish oil (RadishO) as the biological component of the diesel composite fuel (DCF) the experimental studies of tractor diesel engine D-243 at idle were conducted and the degree of the effect of different composition of radish and mineral fuel on economic and ecological indicators of diesel engine is determined. The best ecological indicators are observed at diesel operation on composite fuel RadishO 50% + 50% DF.
ESTIMATING SUSPENDED SEDIMENT CONCENTRATIONS IN SURFACE WATER OF TRI AN LAKE (VIETNAM) USING LANDSAT MULTISPECTRAL IMAGES
Hung Trinh Le, Tuyen Vu Danh
Monitoring of suspended sediment is important to maintain water quality and geomorphologic balance. Traditional methods based on field surveys only solve the problem on a small scale. Along with the development of remote sensing technology, satellite images are widely used in the study, analysis of suspended sediment. This article presents a method based on spectral mixture analysis to estimate the suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) in surface water of the Tri An lake from LANDSAT multispectral images. The results which are obtained in this study can be used to create the map of suspended sediment distribution and to evaluate water quality.
ECOLOGICAL CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF DEICING MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGY OF THEIR SAFE APPLICATION
Stepanova L.P., Yakovleva Е.V., Pisareva А.V.
In cities where vast heaps of people, industrial enterprises and traffic are concentrated, whole new ecosystem appears. It is characterized with high level of pollution, specific heat regime, vegetation depression, soil pollution. This results in the necessity to carryout high priority measures on preservation of natural amenities. With pollution accumulation the organic matter concentration in open water increases, in its turn it results in complication and cost increase of drinking water purification. Pollutant accumulation process in natural habitat at specific time intervals can result in irreversible changes. It is necessary to develop measures on the mentioned influence, particularly obligatory observation of the requirements of the highways winter cleaning technology, the content and reagents consumption at different temperature ranges, and also exclusion of rotary snow clearance with penetration of pollutants into the green areas.