GENETIC ANALYZES OF SOME MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES ASSOCIATED WITH THE DIVERGENCE BETWEEN WILD SELFER FAGOPYRUM HOMOTROPICUM OHNISHI AND CULTIVATED OUTCROSSER F. ESCULENTUM MOENCH
Fesenko I.N., Fesenko A.N.
Genetic analysis of interspecific differences between outcrosser Fagopyrum esculentum Moench and selfer F. homotropicum Ohnishi was conducted in both flower size and number of partial inflorescences. Both the characters are under polygenic control. Plus-alleles are dominant in loci influencing flower size, but are recessive in loci affecting the number of partial inflorescences: the «wild type» of floral display in buckwheat is large showy flowers combined with a small number of partial inflorescence. Evolution of self-pollinated species F. homotropicum was accompanied by reducing flower size only. On the contrary, variety population of cross-pollinator F. esculentum maintains genetic system providing large flower (primitive feature) and large inflorescence (derived feature). The maintaining of the complex of genes that provide a small number of metamers (partial inflorescences) in the inflorescence in the wild forms was likely to optimize pollen regime when population density was low, and seed forming regime in barren conditions of mountains.
THE EFFICIENCY OF DIFFERENT METHODS OF PRIMARY TILLAGE AT BROOMCORN MILLET PRODUCTION IN THE OREL REGION
Lobkov V.T., Abakumov N.I., Bobkova Y.А., Mikhaylova Y.L.
The influence of primary tillage methods with the application of herbicide Dimesol on the phytosanitary condition of crops and productivity of grain was studied on the bases of broomcorn millet Quartet. Also technological cards of crop cultivation by options of experience were calculated and the structure of expenses at millet cultivation was analyzed. During the research it was stated that productivity of millet increases when the intensity of tillage increases as well. The reduction of tillage intensity during millet cultivation leads to sharp reduction of productivity; thus it is necessary to strengthen herbicidal protection, especially against the second wave of weeds. Options with dump tillage appeared to be the most favorable ones in the economic relation. Considering the structure of expenses by production of millet grain, it is found out that the greatest part of them is the share of mineral fertilizers (about 60%). At millet cultivation without tillage there was a fuel depreciation practically twice. This option needs additional studying.
VARIETY INFLUENCE ON YIELD CAPACITY AND QUALITY OF WINTER WHEAT IN THE OREL REGION CONDITIONS
Melnik А.F., Amelin А.V., Mazalov V.I., Nikolaev А.N.
The article describes the test results of 50 varieties of winter wheat in the Shatilovskaya Agricultural Experimental Station in the Orel region. It is proved that in the leading scientific and research establishments of Russia a number of varieties which in the conditions of the Orel region create yield capacity that is higher than 6,0 t/h with the grain protein content of 13,0-14,0%, gluten of 24-28%. Among them the most perspective varieties are: Moskovskaya 40, Nemchinovskaya 17 (Moscow Scientific Research Institute of Agriculture), Povolzhskaya 86 (Povolzhsky Scientific Research Institute of Agriculture), Bezenchukskaya 380 (Samara Scientific Research Institute of Agriculture), Krastal (Voronezh Scientific Research Institute of Agriculture), Dominanta, Missia (Donskoy Zone Scientific Research Institute of Agriculture), Ariadna, Korochanka, Synthetic (Belgorod Scientific Research Institute of Agriculture), Donchanka, Aksinya, Izyuminka, Don 107, Asket, Spartak (State Scientific Establishment of All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Grain Crops), Orlovskaya 241 (All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Grain Legumes). The above enumerated varieties are of great interest not only for production but also for selection, because they can be used as original perspective material in creation of new varieties generation.
THE INFLUENCE OF BIOSTIMULANTS OF GROWTH AND ANTIFUNGALS ON PRODUCTIVITY AND QUALITY OF THE BREWING BARLEY IN THE OREL REGION
Lopachev N.A., Amelin A.A., Efremova J.V., Melnikov V.P.
Effects of experimental researches of an increase yield, quality and economic indicators are presented at cultivation of brewing barley with application of biological preparations against antifungals in the conditions of Joint-Stock Company «Orel Nobel-Agro» of Kolpnjansky region of the Oryol region.
The effect of applying biologically active substances on the production process of soybean and beans
The article presents results of research on studying of influence of inoculation and treatment by biological active substances on symbiotic activity and seed production of soybean and common bean. Researches were conducted in the All-Russia Research Institute of Legumes and Groat Crops in 2007-2009. Influence of presowing treatment by preparations Albit, Humate of potassium and Mival-Agro at separate application and at combination to inoculation with nitragin on symbiotic and photosynthetic activity of soya and bean, and also on their productivity was studied. Formation of symbiotic apparatus and its activity were defined by presence of spontaneous populations of Rhizobia and at their absence it depended on treatment by nitragin. The greatest increase of area of leaves was noted at combination of inoculation with application of Humate of potassium and Albit-19,4% at soya and 35% at bean. The highest yield - 21,4 c/ha on soya and 18,8 c/ha on bean (on the average for 3 years) was received at combination of treatment of seeds by Humate of potassium and inoculation with nitragin.
NEW VARIETY OF STRONG WINTER WHEAT UNIVERSAL TYPE ODYSSEY
Kovtun V.I., Kovtun L.N.
The paper presents the morphological and agronomic and biological characteristics and properties of the new varieties of winter wheat Odyssey. This is a sort of soft winter wheat universal type, which is intended for sowing best fertilizer nonfallow predecessors, intense and medium intense technologies of fallow and half fallow.
FIELD TESTS OF A NEW COMPLEX PREPARATION FOR WHEAT
Pavlovskaya N.E., Borodin D.B., Gagarina I.N.
Modern intensive plant growing is impossible without using fertilizers, plant growth regulators, and plant immunomodulators. Sometimes it is more profitable to produce the synthesis of the necessary substances technologically, not chemically. The advantage of using cells metabolites over pesticides and chemical fertilizers is their complex positive effect and high efficiency that allow applying biologically active preparations in minimal doses. Being natural these substances are not accumulated in the environment and easily utilized in it. The purpose of the research is to study the physiological aspects of using new biotechnological complex preparation of immunocorrective action and its effect on winter wheat productivity in the industrial experiment on the base of Joint-Stock Company
ROLE OF BINARY SOWING CROPS WITH LEGUMES FOR PRESERVING AND IMPROVING SOIL FERTILITY
Nesmeyanova M.A., Kuznetsova T.G., Dedov A.V.
The article presents research results of the Agriculture Department of Voronezh State Agricultural University on cultivating legumes in binary crops with sunflower and winter wheat in conjunction with using green manure crops. The effect of the studied factors on fertility of black soil and crop yields is shown.
THE EFFECT OF AGROTECHNICAL METHODS OF CULTIVATION OF FRUIT AND DECORATIVE CROPS SAPLINGS ON PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROCESSES OF THE GRAY FOREST SOIL
Sycheva I.I., Gurin A.G.
The data on influence of agrotechnical methods of cultivation of fruit and decorative crops saplings are provided in article, on physical and chemical properties of the gray forest soil. Such methods as the depth of soil preparation and a dose of fertilizer dressing were studied. It is shown that density and soil hardness in the top soil 0-20 cm didn't depend on tilling depth, in soil layer of 20-40 cm the density and hardness of the soil was significantly lower in case with tilling depth 40 cm. Therefore here the root system of saplings had bigger volume optimum on the physical indicators of a root layer. Fertilizer dressing in the raised doses promotes increase the content of nitrate nitrogen in the soil. The increase of tilling depth reduces concentration of nitrogen to 40 cm, owing to its distribution in the bigger volume of the soil.
METHOD OF MONITORING MINERALS USING REMOTE SENSING DATA BASED ON SPECTRAL INDEX
Hung Trinh Le, Varvarina E.A.
The paper presents the results of monitoring iron oxide, clay mineral by using LANDSAT 7 ETM+ image based on spectral index in Musan area (North Korea). The results which are obtained in this study can be used to create distribution clay mineral, iron oxide map, and to serve mineral mining and exploration.
IMPLEMENTATION OF THE RIGHTS OF LAND OWNERSHIP IN TERMS OF INSTITUTIONAL CHANGE IN AGRO-INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX
Nechaev N.G., Zhavoronkova N.S.
The article presents the analysis of the legal framework of land ownership formation. It gives a careful consideration to the realization of some legal rights of ownership in the process of land reform in the Russian Federation. Special attention is paid to the problems of share ownership of the land.
POTENTIAL OF COOPERATION OF SMALL-SCALE BUSINESS PATTERNS IN RURAL AREA OF THE OREL REGION
Proka N.I., Polukhin А.А., Savkin V.I., Surovtseva Е.S., Kuznetsova Т.М.
The article analyzes the cooperation potential of small-scale business patterns in rural area of the Orel region and justifies the priorities of its territorial development. The main directions, the organizational model and the target codes of perspective development of cooperation of small-scale business patterns in the region are worked out.
MODEL OF REALIZATION OF ORGANIZATIONAL AND ECONOMIC MECHANISM OF FIXED CAPITAL REPRODUCTION MANAGEMENT IN AGRICULTURE
Now an important point in economic life of the country is the accession to the World Trade Organization. This process promotes receipt of access to the new markets, attraction of foreign investments. Russia will be able to take high line items in the international community only in case of release of competitive products on the world scale which considerable share is the share of agricultural industry. Production in this industry is unstable and is accompanied by a large number of risks. Considerable influence on a continuity and quality of release of material benefits in agricultural industry renders rates of reproduction of fixed capital that in turn predetermines need of development of measures for increase of management efficiency by this process. In article the mechanism of actions aimed at providing with fixed capital, return increase from each ruble enclosed in its objects, reducing time of its turnover, and assuming availability of measures of organizational and economic impact is offered, the scheme of its gradual implementation is given in macro, meso and micro level of management.
THE WAYS OF INCREASING THE EFFECTIVE POTENTIAL OF THE CATTLE DAIRY PRODUCTIVITY IN THE OREL REGION UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF RUSSIA'S WTO ACCESSION
Piskunova O.G., Kleimyonova N.V., Malakhova N.A., Smagina T.V., Lishchuk A.P.
The important condition for increasing production of livestock products is providing dairy farms and specialized complexes with highly productive animals. The successful solution of this task requires the development and application in practice of the most rational, science-based systems of breeding farm animals taking into account specialization of livestock.
SANITIZATION OF HATCHING EGGS IN THE PREVENTION OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES IN POULTRY
Epanova E.L., Kovalyov V.L., Belkin B.L.
The paper presents an analysis of detached ways of sanitation of the hatching eggs in the system of prevention of poultry infectious diseases. From our investigations the most effective ways of eggs disinfecting are found to be selodez and selodez in combination with UV-irradiation, and formaldehyde, which significantly reduces their contamination in 34,5 - 46,8 times and provides a full release of the shell contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms.
Triticale is wheat ray hybrid. Grain is characterized with high nutrient value. The number of non-starch polysaccharides (NPS) in it is less than in ray. The article presents the research results on studying the efficiency of usage of triticale in combined feeds of different structure for broilers. The rational levels of its introduction into combined feed content, its digestibility and fodder nutrients usage by broilers are defined. The efficiency of combined feeds enrichment with triticale by means of enzyme preparation CelloLux-F is defined.
IDENTIFICATION OF BORDETELLA BRONCHISEPTICA BACTERIA WITH THE HELP OF POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION IN MONOAND MULTYPLEX FORMAT
The article gives the results of the original research aimed at working out molecular-genetic methods for the identification of Bordetella bronchiseptica. The parameters for conducting polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with the worked out systems of primers within using monoplex and multiplex format are suggested. The optimal methodology of singling out B. bronchiseptica DNA is selected; the main parameters of the reaction are validated. The research was performed with the financial help of the government represented by the Ministry of Science and Education of the Russian Federation within the implementation of the Federal Target Project “Scientific and Scientific-Pedagogical Staff of the Innovative Russia” for the years 2009-2013 (agreement № 8267 from 10.08.2012).