BENEFITS FROM TREE SPECIES’ DIVERSIFICATION IN COCOA AGROFORESTS IN THE CENTRE REGION OF CAMEROON
Achille Jean Jaza Folefack, Lea Yvonne Eboutou, Ann Degrande, Thérèse Fouda Moulende, François Kamajou, Siegfried Bauer
This paper analyses the profitability of cocoa farmers in the Centre region of Cameroon who wish to diversify their activity by associating inside their orchards several species of domestic fruit trees. Hence, by using linear programming and financial appraisal tools, eight agroforest systems are compared in order to deduct the most beneficial one. The results show that, priority should be given to the most enriched agroforest (Cocoa+Safout+Mango+Ndjansang) which is the most beneficial/productive one for resources use. It provides the highest Net Present Value (19,398 Euros/ha), Internal Rate of Return (52.7%) and Benefit Cost Ratio (8.20) as well as the shortest Pay Back Period (4 years), confirming that it is the most beneficial combination. Hence, to earn higher income, farmers should adopt the most diversified agroforest and the government should encourage trees’ regeneration and cocoa farm extension.
PERSPECTIVES OF SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY OF RURAL MUNICIPAL DISTRICTS OF RUSSIA
Kabanov V.N., Mikhailova E. V.
Given the prospects of spatial development of rural municipal districts of the Russian Federation, including a comprehensive development strategy of the enterprises of agro-industrial complex based on an assessment of conditions ensuring the growth of quality of life. On the basis of comparison with the open published materials proved the need for the use proposed by the authors of the principle of long-term planning in the agricultural sector, which is an integrated approach in addressing issues of distribution and production capacity in agriculture taking into account the territorial and socio-economic development of rural municipal districts in Russia. Unlike existing methods is a scientific justification, including the reform of the administrative-territorial division of the Russian Federation subjects. Increase the quality of life of the rural population is associated with the current standards of urban management, but also with changes in the labour market of rural municipal districts. Substantiated proposals aimed at overcoming negative phenomena prevailing in rural municipalities: consolidation of agricultural enterprises is the most effective way to increase the competitiveness of domestic producers of agricultural products, provided the organization of deep processing of agricultural products in place of its production; alteration of the administrative-territorial division in the subjects of the Russian Federation is able to provide large enterprises with highly qualified personnel and rural residents in the comfort level of accommodation that will be able to compete with the quality of life in large cities; the increase in the concentration of rural population in larger settlements contributes to the solution of problems related to the fullest development of human potential, including, of course, provide the increase of efficiency of budget investments in human capital.
INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE AS AN INCENTIVE TO CLUSTER DEVELOPMENT IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Long-term development of the national economy is impossible without an increase in its competitiveness in both traditional as well as in knowledge-intensive sectors. To meet this challenge requires the creation of a clear interaction between business, science, government, and education through the use of effective tools of innovation development.
THE PROBLEMS AND MAIN DIRECTIONS OF FORMATION OF INFORMATION AND CONSULTANCY SERVICES IN THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR
Many years of practical experience shows that in market conditions and development of modern science and technology one of the vital tasks for the organization’s managers is operative obtaining of relevant information for basic management decisions. However, as show researches, in Russia in practice not only there was no basis of administrative consultation, but also there are no attempts of judgment of its system organization in the form of significant projects even so far. At the same time the international experience shows that «stagnation in a control system» is a guarantee of defeat in rigid competitive fight not only within the certain state, but also in the conditions of the international economic relations.
BASIC PRINCIPLES OF TAXATION IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Puzynya T.A., Beskrovnaya V.A.
The tax system of the Russian Federation based on economic and legal principles, to include economic justice, proportionality, efficiency or effectiveness, to legal same - the legitimacy of the establishment, the combination of the interests of taxpayers with state authorities. In addition to the principles of taxation often include organizational rules, which imply a common methodological framework in the calculation of taxes and their exhaustive list.