It was found that the persistence of milk components positively correlated with the dynamics of daily milk yield per lactation. Mass fraction of fat and protein in milk reached lows in mid-lactation, while the time of launch in protein content were observed maximum values. A similar pattern was noted for the mass fraction of the dry matter, but on the percentage of lactose opposite trend: early and late lactation milk sugar content was less than the decrease peak periods and maximum daily milk yield. By reducing the ratio of fat-protein from calving to the end of lactation was observed simultaneous increase in the number of somatic cells in the milk of cows, heifers. The best estimate of the persistence of daily monitoring of indicators of milk components had a mass fraction of lactose and protein, and fat-protein ratio.
ANALYSIS OF RAINFALL DATA TO ESTIMATE RAIN CONTRIBUTION TOWARDS CROP WATER REQUIREMENT USING CROPWAT MODEL
Tahir Saeed Laghari, Abdul Khaliq, Syed Hamid Hussain Shah, Shaukat Ali, Haroon Shahzad, Umair Nasir
A study was carried out to define the analysis of rainfall data in order to estimate its contribution towards crop water requirements to overcome these problems. Rainfall and climatic data was collected from metrological stations, C.P UAF rain gauge (A), (AARI), (B), (CAA), (C) and (WAPDA), (D), Faisalabad of given region and this data was reserved for cross validation. The test station’s (A) rainfall data was subjected to double mass curve technique to check its consistency with respect to other rainfall stations (B, C and D) in that area. The results derived by double curve technique were accurate for interested gauge station because there was no any break in curve. Then this consistent data was used to determine effective rainfall. The ET o was established by using penman-monteith method in the course of CROPWAT model and its effect with respect to other parameters like sun shine hour, wind speed, maximum & minimum temperature and rainfall humidity were determined. It was founded that the reference evapotranspiration (ET o) is more during April to September due to increase in temperature and low in remaining months. After that data was placed in the model to acquire crop water requirement and irrigation of illustrative crops (wheat & maize) from the district. Through which we estimated that 7.5% rainfall for wheat and 15.5% rainfall for maize can contribute in actual irrigation per year. Through which we determined that 92.5 % and 84.5 % irrigation is required for wheat and maize crop respectively.
CULTURAL FACTORS AFFECTING LIVELIHOOD STRATEGIES OF RURAL HOUSEHOLDS IN SOUTHEAST NIGERIA: IMPLICATION FOR AGRICULTURAL TRANSFORMATION AGENDA
Matthews-Njoku E.C., Nwaogwugwu O.N.
Cultural issues have had significant influence in rural household economies, which over the years depend strongly on agriculture. Such issues come to the fore in the face of emerging innovations for agricultural transformation. The study analyzed the cultural factors affecting livelihood strategies of rural households in Southeast Nigeria, highlighting their implication for Agricultural transformation agenda. The specific objectives of the study were to identify the predominant livelihood strategies of rural households and analyze the cultural factors affecting livelihood strategies of rural households in the study area. With the aid of a structured and validated interview schedule, data were collected from a sample size of 180 household heads selected from a population of 754,702 household heads in the study area using a 5-stage random sampling procedure. The statistical tools used in data analysis included mean, frequencies, percentages and factor analysis. The result indicated that the predominant agricultural livelihood strategies found among rural households in southeast Nigeria includes crop farming, livestock farming, farm labour, farm product processing, among others while the predominant non-agricultural livelihood strategies includes petty trading, remittances from relatives, civil service among others. The cultural factors affecting livelihood strategies of rural households the study area were identified as: exclusive traditional role of household heads as income earner (mean = 2.92, the pressure of large household size on household resource base limits resource mobilization (mean = 3.21), gender gaps in access to productive factors (mean = 3.15), limited women involvement in productive activities (mean = 2.89), limited women access to social services and amenities (mean = 2.89), exclusive property rights for male members of the household (mean = 3.19), among others. Factor analysis result showed 3 major factor loadings that affect livelihood strategies of rural households in the study area as high dependency on household head, culture-based inequalities, and traditional gender-based property rights. It is therefore recommended that land use decree, tenancy and other property rights should be reviewed, modified and introduced into rural areas to improve access to land and other productive resources especially to enable women and youth pursue their livelihood interests, which depend critically on such resources.
EFFECT OF POULTRY FEED SUPPLEMENTED WITH HYPERICUM PERFORATUM EXTRACT AND VIRGINIAMYCINE ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE, SOME IMMUNE RESPONSES AND INTESTINAL MICROBIAL POPULATION OF BROILERS
Sayyed Masoud Davoodi, Farshid Kheiri, Yaser Rahimian
This study investigated the effect of adding Hypericum perforatum to drinkable water in comparison to virginiamycine on performance of broilers and thus on improvement and increase welfare and growth. A total of 400 , one day old broiler chicks with an average weight of 37±50 g were divided into 5 treatment groups and were further subdivided into 4 replicates. The treatments were divided as basal diet with no Hypericum perforatum extract kept as control, and for others 150 mg/l (S1), 200 mg/l (S2) and 250 mg/l (S3) of herbal extract in their Drinking water and virginiamycine (S4) were used respectively. The live body weight gains and feed consumption of birds were measured individually feed conversion efficiency were calculated weekly. At the end of the trial for investigating the effect of using Hypericum perforatum and virginiamycine on performance of broilers, 3 birds form each replicates were slaughtered and some blood samples were taken for determination HDL, LDL, Triglyceride levels and antibody titer against Newcastle vaccine. Data showed that use of S1, S2 and S3 and S4 increased FI significantly (P<0.05) in comparison to control. Also BW and Pre-slaughter weigh at the end of the experiment were also significantly higher (P<0.05) in experimental groups compared to the control. Liver percentage was significantly induced were broilers fed with experimental diets (p<0.05). There were significant differences (p<0.05) for heart percentage between treatments. Using of herbal plant extract could reduce abdominal fat percentage statistically (p<0.05).Percentage of gizzard was higher in the control group and it was at the lowest in virginiamycine group (p<0.05). triglyceride, cholesterol and LDL level decreased significantly in the treated groups while HDL level increased significantly in S1, S2 ,S3and S4. Antibody titers were significantly higher (p<0.05) when broilers were fed by S1, S2, S3and S4. It was determined that herbal and virginiamycine had significant effects on HI test (p<0.05) that compared to control group. Data showed that E. coli population decreased in S1, S2, S3 and S4 while Lactobacillus population increased significantly in S4, S3,S2 and S1 respectively (p<0.05).
FARMERS’ WILLINGNESS TO PAY FOR WEATHER FORECAST INFORMATION IN SAVELUGU-NANTON MUNICIPALITY OF THE NORTHERN REGION
Franklin Nantui Mabe, Prince Nketiah, Daniel Darko
In the quest for farmers to get maximum output and improve their livelihood within the major constraint of depending on rain-fed agriculture, the issue of having access to weather forecast information is very important. A contingent valuation method was used to elicit the amount farmers are willing to pay for accessing unpriced weather forecast information in the Savelugu-Nanton Municipality of the Northern Region. Farmers were also asked to rank weather forecast variables according to their level of importance. An open ended stated preference approach was employed. The study also used multivariate regression model to identify the factors which significantly affect the amount farmers are willing to pay for weather forecast information. Chance of rain was considered the most important weather forecast information required by farmers. The study found out that farmers on the average are willing to pay an amount of GH¢41.20 annually for weather forecast information. The study revealed that age, sex, farm size and on-farm income significantly and positively affect the amount farmers are willing to pay for weather forecast information. Weather forecast information delivery should therefore be a key factor in all agriculture policy discussions in enhancing farm risk management. Government and investors could also increase their revenue base by expanding and providing weather information to farmers for a fee.