Economic analysis of Upland and Swamp rice production in Ebonyi State, South east Nigeria was studied and analyzed in 2011 farming season. Purposive and multistage random sampling technique was used to select agricultural blocks, circles and rice farmers. The sample size was 240 rice farmers (120 Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) Upland rice contact farmers and 120 Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) Swamp contact rice farmers). Data for the analysis were collected from a structured questionnaire. The result indicates that mean ages of upland rice farmers was 37.3 years while swamp rice farmers had 39.2 years. The mean farming experience for both farmers were 8.5 years (upland rice farmers) and 8.8 years (swamp rice farmers) with farm sizes of 1.2 and 1.1 hectares for upland rice farmers and swamp rice farmers respectively. Upland rice farmers had an annual farm income of 189,410.00 NGN (1,222USD) as against 201,166.00 NGN (1,297.85USD) for Swamp rice farmers. The multiple regression (Cobb Douglas) estimates of the determinants of output of upland rice showed that coefficients age, farming experience, farm size, variable inputs and farm income were positively signed at given levels of probability while capital inputs was negative. The Cobb Douglas regression estimates of the determinants of output of Swamp rice showed that the coefficients of education, labour cost, farm size, variable inputs and farm income were positively signed and significant at given levels of probability as well as capital inputs which was negative. The result indicates that net profit from Upland rice cultivation was 92,800.00 NGN (598.71USD) with a Benefit Cost Ratio of N1.55 (1.56USD). The net profit from Swamp rice cultivation was 132,090.00 NGN (852.19USD) and a Benefit Cost Ratio of 1.75 NGN (1.75USD). Access to credit to rice farmers, subsidy on farm inputs, dissemination of improved rice technologies by extension agents and formation of farmer groups were advocated for increased rice production.
AN ECONOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN ZIMBABWE
In Less Developed Countries (LDCs) like Zimbabwe, agricultural production has been regarded by several studies as a paramount prerequisite for industrialization and economic growth. The idea behind this view is that, as agricultural production increases, countries are able to produce more food with less labour input which allows them to feed their growing population while releasing labour for the manufacturing sector and other sectors of the economy hence the process will lead to economic growth. The main objective of this study was to investigate how agricultural production affected economic growth in Zimbabwe from 1980-2010. The Log linear growth regression model was employed where gross domestic product was the dependant variable and the explanatory variables are the major crop products and factors which affect it. Four major crops which were included in the model are tobacco, maize, coffee and cotton. Moreover, a dummy variable for the prevailing weather conditions was also included in the model. The regression analyses were performed using Econometric-views 3 (E-views 3) statistical package. Regression was carried out on time series data for the period 1980 to 2010. The data was tested for stationarity and for autocorrelation. Problems of non stationarity of data were corrected by differencing the trending series. Results from the empirical analysis provide strong evidence indicating that agricultural production is important in improving the wellbeing of countries especially in LDCs. The results from this study suggest that the value of agricultural production of tobacco, maize and cotton positively affects economic growth in Zimbabwe from 1980 to 2010.
SPECIFIC CONTROL OF SALMONELLA IN POULTRY
Scientifically based and clinically validated new tools and methods to combat Salmonella infection in poultry, allowing to ensure the safety and health safety products - eggs and poultry meat. The method of selective decontamination involves the use of bivalent bacteriophage that is based on highly selected phages Phagum Salmonella typhimurium and Phagum Salmonella enteritidis, as well as probiotic laktobifadola. The developed tools and methods of selective decontamination followed by immunization with inactivated vaccine associated
ABOUT THE STATE OF THE WORLD WHEAT MARKET AT THE CURRENT STAGE
The author considers the Phillips curve in the historical aspect. In the article there is a mention that there were examples when the Phillips curve was not confirmed. Then the author goes on to describe the post-crisis economic situation. The author refers to the food problem as a global problem, which has been designated in the papers of the Club of Rome. Then the author characterizes world wheat production for the period 2003-2013. The author gives an example that shows the volatility of the wheat market (CBOT). The author explains why he uses quotations of forward contracts, and not in the spot market. The author scrutinizes the quotations of CBOT wheat futures contracts in the paper. The author substantiates the need for an econometric model in the research process of futures CBOT wheat prices. The author justifies the chosen scientific approach that defines the methods of research and research model. The author uses econometric approach in the paper. The author uses linear regression as a method of the research. The author creates the equation of linear regression using the software. The author makes a conclusion that there is a certain linear relationship between the price of the futures contract CBOT wheat and the level of unemployment in the United States during the period. The author verifies the effect of Phillips curve. Results of this paper allow the analyst to make informed pricing decisions on the organized market of wheat trade in the medium term.
TRADE DYNAMICS IN ZIMBABWE (1980-2012):
Zimbabwe in 1980, when it became independent from British rule, it inherited a developed and predominantly white controlled economy. Since then, the government of Zimbabwe instituted a number of reforms that transformed the economy from being more of socialism to more of capitalism, as it is today (2013). More importantly, is the change in trade dynamics between 1980 and the post 2000 period. National, global and regional trade developments and resultant policies have also contributed to the noted trade shift. The historical decade of economic contraction and political developments, from the start of the new millennium, affected the country's real economy, as was manifested in shrinking production capacity and hence the composition, value, volume and source of both exports and imports.