Due to economical transformations of 1990-s in the sphere of milking cows breeding its profitability has grown low on many Russian cow-breeding farms, which was accompanied by the deterioration of zootechnical registration, selection and analytical approach to salvation of agro industrial complex topical problems. It caused the necessity of animal breeding enterprises reorganization. The introduction of intensive technologies, intellectual and methodical potential of domestic and foreign science to the animal breeding set a number of new problems before zootechnicians and stock-breeders. One of these tasks - improving the management of breeding and, especially, its biological factors (heritability, genetic correlations, the effect of heterosis, etc.). The situation is complicated by the fact that currently used in the selection of inbreeding, which often leads to inbreeding depression on intensity of growth, live weight, reproductive qualities and other selection signs. For the decision it is problems us researches of influence of inbreeding on efficiency of Black-and-White cows have been conducted. In scientific work the results of a comparative evaluation of milk yield of cows with inbreeding and conventional breeding. In the scientific is work studied the percentage of heifers and steers at calving, the number of calves-twins, stillborn calves and abortions in inbreeding and normal of animals groups. Inbreeding no had significant effect on stillbirths. The percentage of Holstein genes may influence of the sexes ratio in their offspring. The article presents the analysis of the level of development and the trends of production and selection in dairy cattle breeding, given prognosis for pig-breeding in Russia, a scheme of management of biological factors of selection, is work said about results of selection of Black-and-White, Simmental and Holstein cattle, also pig in Orel region.
IDENTIFICATION OF THE TYPE OF AGRICULTURE SUITED FOR APPLICATION OF WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS
Abdullah Ahsan, Barnawi Ahmed
The world's population is expected to double by 2050; world food supply is unlikely to double by doubling the area under cultivation or by doubling the availability of water. There are other challenges too, such as decline in the number of farms and a decline in the number of agriculture workforce. Climate change is expected to further aggravate the existing situation. Therefore, for the humanity to survive agriculture has to become smart - one way is by integrating Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) in agriculture. In this paper, we will present the application of WSN in agriculture and discuss different types of sensors, different types of WSN and their application in 13 different types of traditional agriculture. We identify the type of agriculture most suited for WSN in terms of applications. We will also review some recent applications of WSN in agriculture; identify challenges and present possible future directions.
ASSESSMENT OF DIVERSIFIED VEGETATION COMMUNITY IN ISLAMABAD VICINITY, PAKISTAN
Ashraf I., Hussain T., Jamil M., Ahmad I., Ahmad M., Abbasi G.H., Akram M., Sammar Raza M.A.
Islamabad is rich in diversified flora. This study was conducted to assess the vegetation communities of Islamabad vicinity. In present study seven different sites were selected in the vicinity i.e. CDA Nursery, F9 Park, Faisal Mosque, Jasmine Garden, near Prime Minister House, near Quaid-e-Azam University and Rawal Lake. A total of 62 major plant species were found in the study area. The dominance of plant species was estimated on basis of importance value. Most dominating species was Brossonetia papyrifera with highest importance value (71.4+35.82). These selected sites were categories on the basis of specie richness indices and Shanen's diversity indices. Jinah Garden was rich in plant species on basis of specie richness.
EVALUATING THE DROUGHT STRESS TOLERANCE EFFICIENCY OF WHEAT ( TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) CULTIVARS
Sammar Raza M.A., Saleem M.F., Khan I.H., Jamil M., Ijaz M., Khan M.A.
The study was conducted at the Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad, Pakistan to evaluate the drought stress tolerance efficiency of wheat cultivars. Eight wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes namely (Pasban-90, Inqalab-91, Auqab-2000, AS-2002, Sahar-2006, Shafaq-2006, Lasani-2008, and FSD-2008) were used for screening in laboratory. Three techniques were used for the screening. These techniques are (I) seed germination at -0.6 MPa external water potential (PEG-6000), (2) seedling growth after 14 days at -0.6 MPa (PEG-6000), and (3) plant water relations of seven-week-old pot-grown plants. Significantly highest germination stress tolerance index, root length stress tolerance index and the water content was recorded in Lasani-2008 and lowest was recorded in Auqab-2000. Dry matter percentage was recorded significantly highest in pasban-90 while the lowest dry matter percentage was observed in auqab-2000. FSD-2008 gained maximum plant height and was recorded minimum in Inqilab-91. Relative saturation deficit was significantly highest in Auqab-2000 while the significantly lowest relative saturation deficit was recorded in case of Lasani-2008. It was concluded from the results that Lasani-2008 performed better under drought and Auqab-2000 was recorded most drought sensitive variety.
BREED PREFERENCES AND EFFECTIVENESS OF BEEKEEPING IN THE SOUTH URAL
Mashenkov A., Glinushkin A., Mashenkov M.
Efficiency of beekeeping is defined by breed of bees and melliferous herbs. In the conditions of sharply continental climate of South Ural, duration of success of beekeeping is provided with breed of bees.