Improving livelihoods in rural areas is important to progress of the developing world and it helps in the creation of the domestic demand for the productive sector. Private sector partnerships in rural areas have been the major driver to reduction of market uncertainties and management of risk and thus bring development, these partnerships are done through private loans and contract farming in Zimbabwe. The major question however is do these partnerships increase rural household welfare in Zimbabwe or it is clearly a capitalist method of rural labour exploitation. Using Propensity Score Matching (PSM) method for rural communities in Chiredzi and Masvingo rural in Zimbabwe we found out that individual households that participates in contract farming and private loans have increased welfare gains than those that do not participate.
THE EFFECTS OF CLIMATIC VARIABLES AND CROP AREA ON MAIZE YIELD AND VARIABILITY IN GHANA
Acquah Henry de-Graft, Kyei Clement Kweku
Climate change tends to have negative effects on crop yield through its influence on crop production. Understanding the relationship between climatic variables and crop area on the mean and variance of crop yield will facilitate development of appropriate policies to cope with climate change. This paper examines the effects of climatic variables and crop area on the mean and variance of maize yield in Ghana. The Just and Pope stochastic production function using the Cobb-Douglas functional form was employed. The results show that average maize yield is positively related to crop area and negatively related to rainfall and temperature. Furthermore, increase in crop area and temperature will enlarge maize yield variability while rainfall increase will decrease the variability in maize yield.
NANOTECHNOLOGY IN FOOD PACKAGING - A CRITICAL REVIEW
Nanotechnology has an extremely high potential to benefit society through applications in food packaging. It can make the products cheaper and the production more efficient by producing less waste and using less energy. However, any new technology carries an ethical responsibility for wise application and the recognition that there are potential unforeseen risks that may come with the tremendous positive potential. The concept of nanocomposites represents a stimulating route for creating new and innovative materials, also in the area of natural polymers. The use of protective coatings and suitable packaging by the food industry has become a topic of great interest because of their potentiality for increasing the shelf life of many food products. Research and development of bio-nanocomposite materials for food applications such as packaging and other food contact surfaces is expected to grow in the next decade with the advent of new polymeric materials and composites with inorganic nano-particles.
USE OF SILVER IONS IN PASTEURIZED MILK PRODUCTION
Mamaev A., Leshukov K., Stepanova S.
The means of pasteurized milk shelf life prolongation by electro-chemical diffusion of silver ions has been introduced. Three samples of pasteurized milk were test subjects. In the course of study the following data have been examined: organoleptic, physicochemical, microbiological parameters of check samples and pilot samples of raw and pasteurized milk. Its shelf life has been determined. It has been determined that the test results of raw and pasteurized milk samples processed by various concentration of silver ions showed minor difference in organoleptic, physic-chemical, microbiological parameters and shelf life span. In this connection it appears reasonable to use the smallest concentration of silver ions - 50 micrograms per liter for milk shelf life prolongation as it is considered the least harmful for person's organism. Infusion of silver ions in the concentration of 50 micrograms per liter allows to prolong raw and pasteurized milk shelf life by two days.
DAIRY PRODUCTION IN BELARUS: STANDARDS, REGULATIONS AND QUALITY STANDARDS
Kovalev L., Kovalev I.
The paper presents a brief analysis of the procedures and requirements for the quality and the production of milk in Belarus from the Soviet Union, and to this day, consider some areas of the dairy industry in the Republic of Belarus for 2011-2015, to look at issues and characteristics of milk production in the country. The article raised some important task of unification of Russian and Belarusian industry regulations and standards.