The aim of this research is to analyse the level of technical efficiency of rice farming by considering farmer preferences towards natural and technological risks. This research is conducted in selected regions in Malang Regency (Indonesia) with the consideration that farmers in selected areas can produce high productivity, but productivity growth fluctuates very sharply each year (within 13 years). Natural phenomenon that often appears as the risks of farming, such as, floods, droughts, and hurricanes. While, the application of technology is the part of the risks of farming, too, because farmers are not willing to adopt the technology which facilitated by the government. Rice farmers who used respondents are 305 people namely spread in seven selected regions in two seasons. The method used are a) Expected Utility of Money to measure the farmer preferences towards the risks and b) Stochastic Frontier Translog production function with Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) approach to analyse the level of technical efficiency of farming. The results found that 77.7% of farmers have averter risk preferences, the level of technical efficiency obtained at 0.75 by pooling the data, and the influence of the preference of farmers to sources of technical inefficiency is -0622. Recommendation submitted is induced the technology with mentoring system and immediately implement the agricultural insurance.
DEMOGRAPHIC PROCESSES AND TRENDS: THE CASE OF NORTHEASTERN MONTENEGRO
Rajovic Goran, Bulatovic Jelisavka
This paper analyzes the contemporary demographic processes and trends in the northeastern part of Montenegro, in the case of municipalities: Berane, Petnjica, Andrijevica, Plav and Gusinje. Population analyzed area is characterized by a steady decline in relation to the dynamics of the population Montenegro. Thus in 1948 the population of the observed geospace is seemed 14.17% of the population Montenegro and in 2011 8.41%. The age structure of the population, due to migration and reducing birth rate is changed and takes on unfavorable characteristics - reduces the proportion of younger, while increasing the share of the elderly population. In both cases deranged age structure has feedback influence on the movement of population (size reproductive contingent), but also to all other population structure (size of the working population, the active population, schools compulsory contingent relationship serving a), which are essential for the development of population and economic activity in the region. Despite significant changes in all demographic structure of this part of northeastern Montenegro, maintained, has the characteristics of ethnically very heterogeneous environment. The current demographic situation and future demographic processes that have determined the legality of long-term demographic inertia, has become a limiting factor in the overall economic and social development.
ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF MILK MARKETING CHANNELS IN SOUTH REGION OF PUNJAB, PAKISTAN: AN EMPIRICAL ESTIMATION OF MARKETING AND PROFIT EFFICIENCY
Mazhir Nadeem Ishaq, Li Cui Xia, Rukhsana Rasheed, Nhu Bang Nguyen, Muhammad Abdullah, Nadeem Abbas
This paper aims to understand the structure of milk supply and to make a comparison between informal and formal milk marketing system with a view to measure the extent of transaction costs divergence in Punjab province of Pakistan. Livestock contribution in Pakistan’s GDP is 11.6 percent and the total milk production for year 2015 was recorded as 52.632 million tons. The descriptive research design was used with stratified sampling techniques for gathering primary data source from four districts having a rich population of livestock and milk producers. Different analytical techniques as marketing efficiency, marketing margin and DEA analysis for profit efficiency were applied for comparative estimation of two marketing systems. The empirical results indicate that the marketing margin (MM) of various middlemen, milk producer’s share in consumer price (DPP) was 20%, 12% higher respectively. The mean value of measure of marketing efficiency (MME) and profit efficiency for informal and formal milk marketing channels was estimated 1.8 and 0.77 respectively. Profit efficiency value for informal marketing channels was 0.37 higher in comparison to formal system. For informal milk marketing system, the traditional milk collector (Dhodi) is alone significant player in marketing chain whereas formal milk marketing chain is occupied by a series of middlemen, further there is involvement of huge fixed cost for producing UHT packed milk. Thus informal milk marketing system is dominating over formal milk marketing channels in Pakistan. Finally, we document some policy recommendation as a potential source amid at improving the situation of milk supply in Pakistan.
FACTORS INFLUENCING LOAN REPAYMENT BY CREDIT BENEFICIARIES OF MICROFINANCE INSTITUTIONS IN THE FAR NORTH REGION, CAMEROON
Achille Jean Jaza Folefack, Josephine Sandrine Mahbou Teguia
In the Extreme North Region of Cameroon, the non-performing loans increased continuously by 17.5%, as the number of banks in the financial sector facing insolvency continued rising. Hence, the present study is carried out to understand how members of microfinance institutions (MFIs) cope with the credit they are awarded in this region. Using questionnaire addressed to 201 members of MFIs (comprised of 107 non-defaulters and 94 defaulters), the descriptive statistics and logit model are used in order to analyze the factors affecting the loan repayment capacity of credit beneficiaries in the MFIs. The results indicate that, members with small household size, with profitable activities, less distant from cash desks, trained for credit management, not married/single, and who use their credit for farming activities are more likely to refund their credit on time. These six factors show significant coefficients in the logit model. However, the six other factors such as the age, gender, farm size, source of finance, loan size, and use of improved technology show insignificant coefficients in the logit model, proving that they have less impact on the defaulter rate of credit beneficiaries. We therefore recommend to the government authorities to give much attention to the significant factors, if microfinance services need to be improved in this region.
CONTRIBUTION OF FUELWOOD MARKETING TO SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOOD IN OYO STATE
Olugbire O.O., Aremu F.J., Opute O.H., Ojedokun C.A., Ayomide A.A., Oguntoye T.O.
Fuel wood is an important source of income and domestic energy for both rural and urban households in Nigeria. The marketing of fuel wood in Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria was investigated with a view to assess the profitability and contribution of fuelwood marketing to sustainable livelihood in Oyo state. Data for the study were obtained from a total of 50 randomly selected respondents through interview schedules, structured questionnaires applications and personal observation. Descriptive statistical tools such as frequency, percentages and tables were used to analyze variables of interest such as age, gender, marital status, education, tribe, experience and type of institution. Profitability analysis was used to examine the profitability of the enterprise. The results revealed that majority (86%) of the marketers were females, 44% had only primary education while 36% had 11 to 20 years of the business experience. The Profitability analysis revealed that an average marketer incurred an average of total variable cost of 31,731.82 naira per month but earned average revenue of 38,290.00 naira which indicated that an average marketer earns 6,558.18 naira as gross margin per month. This thus indicated that fuel wood marketing is profitable. Transportation, season and government policy are the major marketing constraints of fuel wood. It is therefore recommended that government should provide good transportation incentives such as good road networks that will reduce the transaction costs and make transportation easy for fuel wood marketers.
ORGANIZATION 2020 - AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF THE CURRENT AND FUTURE IMPORTANCE OF ORGANIZATIONAL ISSUES FOR HORTICULTURAL COMPANIES AND THEIR PERCEIVED COMPETENCE IN GERMANY
Meyerding Stephan G.H.
Structural change, the increasing concentration of industry, and environmental issues are changing the competitive landscape in German horticulture. As in other fields of corporate management the priorities of organizational design are constantly changing. The aim of the present study is to identify issues which will characterize organizational design in the future from the perspective of decision-makers in German horticultural companies, to identify overarching trends and to capture the currently perceived competence of the decision-makers in different fields, as well as their past experience. The study specifically aims to indicate issues where a gap between future importance and perceived competence is present. For this purpose more than 150 entrepreneurs and executives from horticulture participated in an online survey in 2014. Most participants in the study were from ornamental horticulture, tree nurseries and vegetable farms. The main finding was that soft issues such as employee-motivation/employee-engagement/empowerment and the design of corporate-culture are approximately 50% more often considered one of the five most important organizational issues in 2020 than hard issues such as general cost-reduction and restructuring . Moreover, there is a critical gap in the perceived competence in future issues such as the optimization-of-leadership-levels, and issues that are already of substantial importance, such as the design-of-corporate-culture and performance-management . A significant positive relationship was observed between self-evaluated economic-success and today’s subjective importance of optimization-of-leadership-levels , innovation-management and project-management . According to the participating horticultural companies, there is a perceived need for action, especially in the soft subjects: organization-of-the-corporate-culture , cross-divisional-collaboration/cooperation-behavior, leadership and process-management .
AGRICULTURAL CREDIT UTILIZATION AMONG FARMERS IN BOLE DISTRICT OF NORTHERN REGION, GHANA
Gideon Danso-Abbeam, Mensah Tawiah Cobbina, Randy Appiah Antwi
This study examined factors influencing the probability of farmers accessing agricultural credit as well as the amount of received credit allocated to farming operations in the Bole district of Northern region, Ghana. A sample size of 100 respondents were randomly selected and interviewed through a well-structured questionnaire. Paired sample t-test was used to test whether there exist a significant difference between the amount of credit received and the amount allocated to farm sectors. Probit model was employed to identify factors influencing the probability of farmer’s access to agricultural credit while Tobit regression model was used to estimate the determinants of credit allocated to farm operations. Evidence from the paired-sample t-test indicated a significance difference between amount of credit received and amount allocated to farm operations. The results from the Probit model indicated that gender, household size, farmers engaging in off-farm income and membership of farmer-based-organization exert significant influence on the probability of farmer’s access to agricultural credit. Moreover, estimates from the Tobit regression model revealed that the amount of credit farmers allocate to farm sector is significantly influence by sex of the farmer, farmers level of education, the size of loan received, loan delay (number of days between loan application and receipt) as well as farmers receiving extension services. The study therefore recommends that loan applications should be approved on time to enable farmers used it for the intended purposes, and farmers should be advised through effective extension programs on the need to use loans for the purpose for which it was procured.
RICE PADDY FARMERS’ PERCEPTIONS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION OFFICERS (AEOS) SERVING THE TARA-TARA III VILLAGE, TOMOHON CITY, NORTH SULAWESI PROVINCE, INDONESIA
Olfie L.S. Benu, Welson M. Wangke
We have conducted a study to survey the perceptions of rice farmers on the role and performance of agricultural extension officers in the Village of Tara-Tara III, Tomohon City, North Sulawesi Province, which is one of rice production centers in Tomohon. 20 respondents were selected randomly. The primary data were obtained from interview for three months using a list of prepared questions. The secondary data were obtained from the BP3K Office of the Tomohon City and Tara-Tara III Village Office. The variables measured in this study were the outreach programs, action plans, maps of the area of technology development, dissemination of new technology information, access to financial institutions and farmers' income. The analysis was performed descriptively using tables. The results show that the agricultural extension officers (AEOs) did not yet provide tangible benefits to the farmers. The roles of the officers were considered merely as a transfer of technology and information. While the farmers expected them to function as a problem solver, a motivator and a facilitator. Such roles are required to deal with the dynamic changes in farmer’s daily life and to fulfill the mission of agricultural extension, e.g. development of farmer’s independence.
STREAMING METHODOLOGY OF SOIL SURFACE - AN INNOVATIVE WAY OF HUMAN ECONOMIC ACTIVITY
Lopachev N.A., Zelinskaya A.A., Stepanova V.I., Plygun S.A.
The stream method for mapping of soil surface in agro-ecosystems is the effective tool allowing to unify its structure and to provide new opportunities for development of many directions of economic activity. The streaming methodology based on theory of physical similarity on similar objects allows significantly expand opportunities at planning both of agricultural systems and complex strategy for rural territories and agro-industrial clusters of the advancing development.
PHYSIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF MINERAL FERTILIZERS' APPLICATION IN FRUIT AND DECORATIVE NURSERY-GARDEN
Conducted a study on characteristics of the physiological processes in plants of fruit and ornamental species under the influence of different doses of mineral fertilizers. It was revealed that under the influence of fertilizer increases the foliage and the leaf areas. The optimal dose of mineral fertilizers are not the same for different species. Leaf water content increased by 2-3% depending on the dose of fertilizer. In addition, the application of mineral fertilizers contributed to the increase of transpiration rate of leaves. The value of this indicator was in direct proportion to the dose of fertilizer. Activation of physiological processes had a positive effect on the growth of seedlings, resulting in increased productivity and quality of nursery planting material.
MORPHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BLACK CURRANT IN THE CONDITIONS OF LOW TEMPERATURE STRESS DEPENDING ON SOIL FERTILITY
Rezvyakova S.V., Motyleva S.M.
Results of field and laboratory researches on components of winter hardiness, resistance of pollen to spring frosts and economic efficiency of cultivation of blackcurrant against different doses of zeolite-mineral fertilizer are presented in article. Using of 16 t/hectare of Hotynetsky zeolite instead full mineral fertilizer in a dose of N90P90K90 increases winter hardiness and productivity of black currant.