This research work was aimed at comparison of specificity and sensitivity levels of up-to-date methods for B.anthracis rapid indication and identification, as well as estimation of their feasibility to be used in the scheme of anthrax laboratory diagnostics. A study of selective and differential diagnostic characteristics of culture media, approbation and intralaboratory validation of a test system Microgen Bacillus ID, and evaluation of immunochromatographic tests (IC-tests), an immunoglobulin erythrocyte diagnosticum and anthrax bacteriophages Fah-VNIIVViM and R/D-Ph-6 for their specificity and sensitivity levels was performed in accordance with instructions for their application using a panel of microorganisms of specially selected B.anthracis field isolates and vaccine strains, and closely related saprophytes of genus Bacillus with various degrees of similarity with respect to their phenotypic, genetic and/or antigenic specificities. The obtained results showed that the most of the presented methods for anthrax rapid indication based on using differential diagnostic selective culture media, identification of specific antigen and/or pathogen receptors of the pathogen, and the differences in biochemical activity levels had no practical significance for laboratory diagnostic practice due to their low sensitivity & reproducibility rates and informative value, as well as high labor and material costs. Among the methods tested, only the media based on phosphatase activity detection, and a new anthrax phage R/D-Ph-6 are noteworthy.
IMPROVEMENT OF ALLOCATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF SALMONELLA ENTERICA BACTERIA OF ARIZONAE SUBSPECIES
Lenev S.V., Laishevtcev A.I., Pimenov N.V.
During the period between 2014 and 2015 we performed morphological, cultural, biochemical, genetic and biological studies of 623 salmonella strains of 270 different serovars, included in the Russian state collection of microorganism strains of FSBI «All-Russian State Research Institute for Control Standardization and Certification of Veterinary Preparations». During the investigation 16 museum bacteria strains of Salmonella genus, Arizonae sp. proved to be of great interest to us. Study of their biochemical properties revealed peculiarities enabling to improve indication and identification technique of the salmonella of this kind.
ANALYSIS OF THE POSTOPERATIVE STATUS OF PERIPHERAL BLOOD CAUSED BY GASTRIC VOLVULUS OF DOGS
Vatnikov Y.A., Sahno N.V., Goleva A.A.
The paper presents analysis of post-operative state of peripheral blood caused by volvulus of the dogs’ stomach. The use of erythrocyte mass in early post-operative period reduces severity of anemia and inflammatory process. The introduction of donor red blood cells reduces severity of action immunosuppressive splenectomy and effects of anesthesia, causing the production of platelets, reticulocytes thus improving reparative processes in the postoperative period.
Risk factors OF EMERGENCE and clinical-ophthalmic characteristics OF horses’ corneal abscess
Sotnikova L.F., Goncharova A.V.
Nowadays the horse is used in sporting event so it is important to preserve the vital senses including vision. Despite the diversity of the eyeball abnormalities of horses, their poly etiology and the complexity of pathogenesis, this path is a priority for study. The act of seeing is provided by the connection of all structures of the eye, including the cornea, the main refracting medium, ensuring the passage of light into the eyeball and the implementation of the act. Keratopathy in horses occurs frequently and accounts for 65% of ocular pathologies in this species. This is due to the fact that the cornea is the most convex portion of the fibrous sheath and constantly exposed to the environment, the curvature of the cornea and the instability of the physiological barriers eyeball is also important. Due to active exploitation of horses the number of traumatic injuries of the cornea has increased and along with uncontrolled use of antibiotics, without taking into account their specificity,has led to the emergence of resistant cells and the development of abscess of the cornea. Corneal abscess is a type of keratopathy when microorganisms multiply into the base material (stroma) while the integrity of the stored flat multilayer epithelium is kept unchanged. This article describes the risk factors of the development of corneal abscess in horses and the pathogenesis of the disease. The clinical differential diagnostic signs of an abscess of the cornea are based on a comprehensive survey of the body and a designation of pathological changes in every department of the anterior segment of the eyeball (cornea, conjunctiva, iris and ciliary body) are determined and the manifestation of iridocyclitis is explained. The manifestation of two currents corneal abscess is grounded. In one case the pathology occurs with autoimmune phenomena keratolysis and melting corneal tissue along with difficult process of vascularization and visualization of the anterior chamber, in the second case it occurs without the phenomena keratomalacia so it allows to evaluate the state of the anterior uveal tract.
GENETIC DETERMINATION OF BREEDING TRAITS OF DAIRY CATTLE IN THE OREL REGION
Shendakov A.I., Anisimova L.I.
In article data on the analysis of coefficients of heritability are provided in herd of cows of black and motley breed in the Orel region. Heritability of a yield of milk in 305 days, fat contents of milk, milk protein content, live weight is studied. It is defined that in herd growth of yields of milk made 1146 kg of milk for one generation, or 119.4% of relative effect of a heterosis.
HOUSEHOLD FOOD SECURITY BASED ON PATTERN OF MIX FARMING IN KUPANG, EAST NUSA TENGGARA, INDONESIA
Silverius Leki, Nuhfil Hanani, Rini Dwiastuti, Budi Setiawan
The purpose of the study is to describe pattern of mix farming that is managed householdally as well as to analyze the level of Household food security based on the pattern of mix farming. Stratified cluster method is used to determine the setting of the study, while simple random sampling is used to decide 114 households being involved in the study. The findings of the study show that there are three types of mix farming pattern managed Householdally, namely (1) mix farming combining crops and plantation, (2) mix farming combining crops and livestock, and (3) mix farming combining crops, plantation and livestock. Household mix farming has low food security with the average level of energy consumption per capita per day of 2,107 kcal and protein consumption of 48.33 grams. The level of food security of the Household mix farming combining crops, plantation and livestock is higher than the ones combining crops and plantation as well as combining crops and livestocks. In the pattern of mix farming combining crops, plantation and livestock, there are 98.36% households that have achieved food security. On the other hand, in the pattern of mix farming combining crops and plantation, there are 87.50% household that achieved food security, while 62.07% of the households in the pattern of mix farming combining crops and livestock that have achieved food security.
DETERMINANTS OF INCOME DIVERSIFICATION AMONG FARM HOUSEHOLDS IN NIGER STATE, NIGERIA
Sallawu H., Tanko L., Nmadu J.N., Ndanitsa A.M.
Poverty incidence in Nigeria is higher among the rural-folks, that is, households that rely mainly on agricultural income. Income diversification is therefore seen as a way to secure income and to increase welfare of the farm households. This study investigated determinants of income diversification among farm households in Niger State, Nigeria. The study utilized data obtained from administering questionnaire to 287 farming households. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and Tobit regression model. The study revealed that mean age, household size, and farm size of the respondents were 42, 7, and 2.82 respectively. A total of 46.4% of the respondents had no formal education and only 12.9% had attained formal education up to the tertiary level. Majority that is 94.8% had no access to credit. Results of the Tobit regression revealed that farm size, age, level of education, farm income, non-farm income, credit use, livestock ownership, household size, poverty status, and occupation were the significant determinants of income diversification in the study area. The study recommends increase in the level of literacy among rural farm households. The impact of institutional credit on employments has been shown which ought to require taking comprehension of this basic by the approach system of the State as a vital advancement issue at the grass root. And in addition, government should re-energize and re-invigorate the extension service division of the State Ministry of Agriculture through capacity building, training and provision of necessary equipment to carry out its functions since they are the only group that understands the farmers’ needs and idiosyncrasies.
COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN OF AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS AND DEVELOPMENT OF PROGRAM COMPLEXES FOR ENSURING OF ADMINISTRATIVE DECISIONS AT THE ORGANIZING OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
Plygun S.A., Lobkov V.T., Abakumov N.I., Bobkova Y.A., Zolotuhin A.I., Glinushkin A.P., Polukhin A.A.
The article presents the main results of joint work of Soil Science Department of the Orel State Agrarian University and a number of scientific and educational institutions of Russia to address issue of development of automated software systems for design of agricultural systems and ensuring of administrative decisions at organizing of agricultural production. Described software products that can be used by farmers, private companies, economic services of agricultural enterprises, regional AIC authorities, scientific and educational institutions in the solution of corresponding problems.