Breast Meat is the most lucrative part of the turkey carcass contributing to 70% of the profit whilst only representing 23-26% of the liveweight. Thus breast meat is the most sought after genetic trait in the poultry industry with the aim to maximise breast meat per bird in percentage of the carcass. Before assessing Breast meat yield (BMY) and its deposition it is necessary to look at muscle development.
ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC POLICY VARIABLES THAT MODELED AGRICULTURAL INTENSIFICATION IN NIGERIA
Sunday B. Akpan, Edet J. Udoh, Inimfon V. Patrick
Evidence has shown that, sustainable agricultural intensification amidst stable economic environment offers workable options to eradicate poverty and hunger. This study examined the trend in agricultural intensification and determined the influence of some macroeconomic variables from 1960 to 2014 in Nigeria. The result showed that, all series were integrated of order one. The exponential trend analysis of agricultural intensification revealed an average annual negative growth rate of 1.60%, 2.10% and 0.10% in Herfindahl, Ogive and Entropy intensification indexes respectively. The long-run and short-run elasticity of the agricultural intensification were determined using the techniques of co-integration and error correction models. The estimation of the error correction model supported the long run stability of agricultural intensification in Nigeria. The empirical results revealed that, in the long run; inflation, industrial output, external reserves, per capita income, and energy consumption were negative drivers of agricultural intensification; whereas crude oil prices, lending rate of Bank, foreign capital in agriculture and non-oil import works in opposite direction. However, in the short run, inflation, external reserves and industrial output retards agricultural intensification; while lending rate of Banks and crude oil price were stimulants. A ten-year out sampled forecast of agricultural intensification showed a steady declined. The empirical results were further substantiated by the variance decomposition and impulse response analyses. It is recommended that, the Nigeria government should re-aligned its macroeconomic policies to achieve stability in inflation rate, external reserves, industrial production, electricity consumption, agricultural credit institution to achieve sustainable agricultural intensification in the long run.
ANALYSIS OF LOAN DEFAULT AND REPAYMENT PERFORMANCE AMONG FARMERS IN AKWA IBOM STATE INTEGRATED FARMERS’ SCHEME
Ekaette Akpan Etukumoh, Aniekan Jim Akpaeti
The study examined Agricultural Loan Default and repayment performance among Farmers in Nigeria: The case of the Akwa Ibom State Integrated Farmers’ Scheme (IFS). Simple random sampling technique was used to select a total of 100 loan beneficiaries for the study- 30 IFS loan beneficiaries from the first batch and 70 beneficiaries from the second batch respectively. Tobit model was used to determine and analyze the explanatory variables influencing default rates of the IFS loan beneficiaries were found to be 9.4% and 99.91% respectively. Analysis of the data using Tobit model revealed that 8 explanatory variables, namely marital status, household size, off-farm income, total farm cost, enterprise profitability, debt-asset ratio, ratio of amount request ed/ given and number of visits of supervisors were significant factors influencing loan repayment among the beneficiaries. It is therefore recommended that Government should organize regular training programmes for IFS Supervisors to enhance effective supervision and appraisal of the agricultural projects. This will check the incessant waste of fund that disrupts prompt repayment of such loans and more vehicles should be provided by Government to enhance effective monitoring of the progress of participants’ projects, assist when necessary and offer advice.
THE FEASIBILITY OF SMALL GRAINS AS AN ADOPTIVE STRATEGY TO CLIMATE CHANGE
The paper examines the feasibility of small grains as an adoptive strategy to climate change in Siansengwe, Binga District. Climate change and variability have resulted in a shift in the rainfall patterns in many parts of the world. Successive droughts in Zimbabwe compounded by other economic shocks in recent years have resulted in decreased maize productivity amongst the communal farmers most of whom reside in regions IV and V which are considered semi-arid. This has resulted in the prevalence of food insecurity particularly to these semi-arid regions as unreliable rainfall has undermined subsistence farming. The environment in Siansengwe, Binga is no longer conducive for maize production due to the unfavorable weather patterns. This has given rise to the need to find alternative food crops, which may be suitable for these areas. According to the research, significant changes have been experienced in the size, structure and composition of the five natural regions. This survey notes that priorities for developing the small grains food system must be derived from a sense of the structure of supply and demand for these grains. They must also reflect an understanding of how grain policies, infrastructure, and technology affect incentives for production and consumption. Strategies designed to improve the performance of the small grains food system should be defined in terms of specific changes in the various components of this enabling environment. The study that there is need to incorporate small grains in semi-arid areas. The study shows how small grains have been adopted in Siansengwe and the impact that small grains have on food security as they can enhance food accessibility, utilization, stability and availability. Small grains production can be the way forward in the provision of food security in drought prone areas like Siansengwe, Binga.
SOCIO-ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF POVERTY AMONG ARABLE CROP FARMERS IN PLATEAU STATE
Mailumo S.S., Omolehin R., Ajala M.K.