The power of the Houck's model of asymmetry is examined via bootstrap and Monte Carlo techniques. The results of bootstrap and Monte Carlo simulations indicate that the power of the Houck's test for asymmetry depends on sample size, level of asymmetry and the amount of noise in the data generating process. Furthermore, the simulation results suggest that both bootstrap and Monte Carlo methods are effective in rejecting the false null hypothesis of symmetric adjustment in large samples with small error size and strong levels of asymmetry. However, in small samples, with large error size and subtle levels of asymmetry, the results suggest that asymmetry test based on bootstrap are powerful than those based on the Monte Carlo methods. I conclude that both bootstrap and Monte Carlo algorithms provide useful tools for investigating the power of the test of asymmetry.
DETERMINANTS OF FARMERS' DECISION TO ACCESS CREDIT: THE CASE OF ZIMBABWE
Chitungo Shallone K., Munongo Simon
In developing countries, improvement in productivity through investment in productive ventures, especially in the agricultural sector where majority of the population derive their livelihood is necessary for accelerated economic growth. In this study we look at the determinants of rural households' decision on credit. The study used random sampling of 20-30 farm households from each district and 97 families responded to the questionnaire. The study concluded that the type of crop, household size and gender of household head positively affected the decision by households to borrow while age squared negatively affects decision to borrow.
RURAL HIGHWAY SERVICE CENTRES AND RURAL LIVELIHOODS DIVERSITY: A CASE OF NGUNDU HALT IN ZIMBABWE
Chazovachii Bernard, Chuma Maxwell
This study seeks to assess the impact of rural high way service centres on livelihood diversity. The establishment of Ngundu rural highway service centre was an approach to assist highway travelers and local residents in accessing essential services without going off-route. Since the establishment of these highway service centers, little has been realized in terms of their utility. Data was collected using questionnaires; participatory observation and interviews and presented in the form of graphs; pie charts and tables. The rural highway service centre benefited local residents in its sphere of influence through social welfare provision; employment creation; recreation and as agricultural inputs collection centres. However the opportunity on livelihoods diversity by locals and travelers to enjoy their need has been abused .Both locals and travelers have turned the centre into risk livelihood strategies arena, crime and deviant behavior proliferated turning it into life threatening zone. Therefore need is there to reinforce overnight surveillance through the neighborhood watch for security and welfare of genuine dealers and travelers for sustainable and investment confident and promotion climate.
SOIL PROPERTIES DYNAMICS INDUCED BY PASSAGE OF FIRE DURING AGRICULTURAL BURNING
Dennis Edem I., Usoroh Alphonsus D., Essien Rosemary A.
Characteristics of an ecosystem are altered both as sudden modifications induced by the passage of the fire and the delayed changes derived from the simultaneous modifications of various soil physical and chemical parameters. Effects of fire on soil properties was performed in experimental plots, whose fuel amount was altered in order to obtain different heating intensities with the aim of determining changes in the soil physico-chemical parameters at varying heating temperatures. The research was conducted in a continuous cropped arable experimental plots located at the University of Uyo Teaching and Research Farm (UUTRF), Use-Offot, Uyo, Nigeria for four growing seasons, between March, 2010 to October, 2011. Core and bulk samples from the burned and adjacent unburned plots (control) were collected for physico-chemical analysis using standard procedures. These induced temperatures were highly variable on the soil surface. Temperature differences significantly (P < 0.05) affected sand, total nitrogen, organic carbon and pH contents of the soils positively (r = 0.518, 0.478, 0.582, 0.595 respectively), whereas a reduction in the soil temperature increased the concentrations of clay, 1mm, 0.05mm and 0.25 mm stable soil aggregates in the soil (r = -0.619, -0.578, -0.780, -0.526 respectively) after burning. Exchange acidity increased to 5.12 cmolkg-1 at 400C from 0.80 cmolkg-1 at initial temperature of 250C at the surface soil. Though aggregates formation was significantly higher (P = 0.05) after burning than the control soil locations, this soil will easily be distressed with the least application of force. The pH decreased to 5.4 at higher temperatures following burning before ashes mineralized. However, both organic matter and ECEC increased at increasing soil temperature. Potassium content remained surprisingly constant as the soil temperature increased. Despite the merits of quick release of occluded nutrients, heating temperatures of slash-and-burn method of land clearing altered soil quality attributes.