Проведён обзор работ учёных Украины по вопросам защиты леса от вредителей и болезней за последние пять лет. Показано, что на основе многолетних комплексных исследований определён видовой состав вредных лесных насекомых, оценено их хозяйственное значение (вредоносность), предложены дифференцированные по регионам и лесорастительным условиям методы учёта и прогнозирования вероятности повреждения насаждений, уточнены сроки проведения защитных и санитарных мероприятий. Начаты исследования распространения возбудителей болезней леса, их взаимодействия с насекомыми-переносчиками, изучение адвентивных видов насекомых и возбудителей болезней, в том числе дотистромоза сосны и усыхания ясеня. Предполагается глубже изучить вопросы, связанные с защитой от вредных организмов, в том числе адвентивных, посадочного материала при выращивании в теплицах и питомниках, в несомкнутых лесных культурах, селекционных объектах и семенных плантациях, а также декоративных насаждений населённых пунктов. The main researches on forest protection in the territory of the Ukraine were carried out in oak (Quercus robur) and pine (Pinus sylvestris) stands which were the most common to the territory. In recent years high attention was paid to the organisms, which damage ash (Fraxinus excelsior) in connection with worsening of condition of its stands. It was shown that Ukrainian forests were the most weakened in the eastern and southern regions. This situation is explained by deficit of precipitation and higher continentality of climate ( it is unfavorable for forest growth, but favorable for development of outbreaks of harmful insects). The purpose of this research was to offer the advances of Ukrainian researchers - forest protectors in solution of scientific and applied tasks as well as to define the perspective tasks in this field of investigation. The base of this review are the scientific publications of researchers on the issues of forest protection in the Ukraine for the last five years. Lists of harmful insects for oak and pine stands were specified, methods of calculation and prediction of such insects were improved, dates of forest protective and sanitary measures were adjusted. A score system of stand attractiveness for the most spread needle and foliage chewing insects was developed and tested. The system gives the possibility to predict the threat of crown damage in separate forest plots using forest inventory data, to draw the maps of threat, to evaluate the potential area of damaged stands and its changes after changes of age, density and species composition of the forest. Coefficients for prediction of mortality of trees after outbreak of pine sawflies were calculated for certain forest site conditions taking into account the level of defoliation and initial sanitary condition of trees. The algorithm for prediction of colonization of trees by stem pests in pine stands, weakened by different actions, taking into account the frequency of colonization by stem pests, the trees of different categories of sanitary condition and distribution of trees by categories of sanitary condition, was suggested. Methodical approaches to determination of species composition of ophiostomoid fungi, related with bark beetles, as well as supporting the Koch's postulates on possibility of vectoring of these fungi by bark beetles were adjusted. Adventitious insects (including leaf-miners, Leptoglossus occidentalis bug) and fungi (pathogens of ash dieback and Dothistroma needle blight) were recorded in the East of the Ukraine. It was shown that in the nearest future it would be necessary to adjust the peculiarities of biology, development and spread of harmful forest organisms in different forest site conditions and different regions of the Ukraine as well as to evaluate relations between population density of harmful organisms and the level of stand damage taking into account the initial stand condition, intensity and duration of natural and anthropogenic actions. It is important to pay more attention to researches of peculiarities of biology and spread of forest diseases and their interaction with vectoring insects. In-depth study of the problems on protection of plant material in green houses and nurseries, unclosed forest plantations, objects of breeding, seed plantations, ornamental stands of settlements from harmful organisms (adventitious insects are included) is planned.
Вестник Поволжского государственного технологического университета. Серия: Лес. Экология. Природопользование
2014. — Выпуск 2(22)
Плюсовые деревья сосны обыкновенной существенно различаются показателями выхода семян из шишек. Комплекс этих показателей выступает надёжным критерием оценки селекционных преимуществ плюсовых деревьев. Дисперсионный, факторный и кластерный анализы установили степень генотипической близости плюсовых деревьев в составе лесосеменных плантаций. Привлечение методов многомерного анализа расширяет арсенал существующих методов селекционной оценки накопленного потенциала плюсовых деревьев. t is important to improve permanent forest seed base for a successful operation of the system of forest seed production. Its effectiveness is largely determined by the quality and breadth of accumulated assortment of plus trees. The most important characteristics of plus trees are indicators of their reproductive activity. Hence, the purpose of this study is a comparative evaluation of plus trees of Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), belonging to the objects of the permanent forest seed production base, established in Nizhny Novgorod region, in a range of indicators. Researches were carried out by means of stationary field and laboratory methods. Each plus tree was presented by 3 - 8 of its clones. Up to 60 pieces normally developed undamaged cones were gathered from each of them. All the clones grew in terms of balanced environmental background and were represented by the same type of grafting coeval, planted at one site with the same feeding area. Statistical processing of the raw data was carried out by dispersion methods and the methods of factor and cluster analyses. Significant differences between plus trees were revealed by means of dispersion analysis. The power of influence of differences between plus trees is estimated by: output of normally developed seeds from cones (h 2 = 29.09 ± 0.31%); quantity of abortive seeds (h 2 = 24.81 ± 0.33%); total seed yield (h 2 = 26.42 ± 0.32%); share of normally developed seeds (h 2 = 25.46 ± 0.33%). Quite logical picture of the four groups of initial parameters on two main components was obtained and a reasonable reduction of the number of independent variables of multivariate statistical complex was achieved due to the factor analysis. These formed the basis of the cluster analysis and dendrogram construction. Plus trees show a steady correlative proximity to each other in phenotypic characteristics within a single assortment. This allows to apply to them a set of procedures of multidimensional ranking in degree of genotypic dissimilarity. Conclusion: differences between plus trees of Scotch pine in their ability to form a normally developed seeds are largely due to their genotype.
Изучена морфологическая и дендрометрическая структура подроста сосны обыкновенной в условиях ненарушенных и слабонарушенных лесных фитоценозов Среднего Урала. Выявлена взаимосвязь постепенного увеличения численности деревьев с морфологическими нарушениями ствола с возрастанием признаков антропогенного воздействия. Проведён анализ сопряжённого распределения деревьев сосны по ранговым классам диаметра, высоты и относительной высоты и морфологическим группам. Определены основные направления регенерационного процесса после повреждения ствола у деревьев сосны I класса возраста. The results of the researches of the injured trees functioning (young trees of Scotch pine) are presented. The objects of the researches are located in Sverdlovsk oblast (Zauralskiy hilly area). Assessment of the recreational digression stages was carried out in accordance with the requirements of an additional division into 4 categories depending on grass layer condition. Distribution of the specimen of young growths of Scotch pine was made by rank classes and morphology structure of a trunk in line with an original technique which includes three morphological groups: 1 - no infringement (H); 2- infringement of monopodial feature in preservation of one-trunk structure in the bottom, middle and (or) top part or individual infringement of one-trunk structure with preservation of monopodial feature in the bottom or top part of a trunk (Ns); 3 - infringement of one-trunk structure with preservation of monopodial feature in the middle part of a trunk often in combination with infringement of monopodial feature and one-trunk structure in different parts of a trunk (Аn). The analysis of the conjugate distribution in rank classes and morphological groups was carried out. It was determined that with the increase of young growths of Scotch pine, morphological infringement of a trunk grows little by little and a share of such trees presence among leaders and sub-leaders in diameter and height also grows. However, the structure of young growths of Scotch pine in the conditions of virgin and lightly disturbed forest communities is, first of all, defined by the peculiarities of natural young growths formation and it does not directly depend on the number of trees of different morphological groups. Thus, it was determined that in the conditions of virgin and lightly disturbed forest communities regenerative processes may provide maintenance of natural structure of young growths after damage of trees.
Дано обоснование термина «экстремальные условия лесозаготовок», описаны характеристики экстремальных условий. Предложены технологии для разработки лесосек в экстремальных условиях, в основу которых положен комбинированный способ трелёвки. Приведены системы машин для разработки лесосек этим способом в таких условиях. Изложены критерии оценки процессов. The subject of the research are extreme conditions of timber harvesting, combined method of skidding, modular concept of machine arrangement, mathematical models of technological processes of criteria of estimation. A grounding to “extreme conditions of timber harvesting” term is given and photos of such conditions are offered. In order to develop felling points in extreme conditions, a combined method with the use of cable and tractor skidding, based on modular principle of machine arrangement, is offered. An engineering solution for combined skidding implementation was stated. A process scheme for establishment of felling points with the use of this type of skidding in extreme conditions was offered. The systems of modular machines for elaboration of such felling points were composed. A preliminary estimate of technological processes and machines systems with the use of the offered criteria is given. In comparison with basic systems of machines, including harvester and forwarder, the offered systems have advantage due to energy saving during free and operating run of working machine along cutting strips. Specific (to the total felling area) areas of main logways are also being reduced, thus, there is no need in cutting strips laying.
Предложен и научно обоснован способ и соответствующая методика предварительного диагностирования прочностных свойств древесины, позволяющая отбирать перспективные экземпляры молодняка с высокими прочностными характеристиками. The problem of conservation and augmentation of high quality timber is considered. The condition is analysed and practical importance of early diagnostics of wood in its production abroad is proved. The goal of the research is to develop the method of preliminary diagnostics of technical quality of young growth by dynamic modulus of elasticity for targeted cultivation of wood with high strength characteristics. Experimental studies were carried out on the basis of an accredited laboratory of qualimetry of sounding timber (Volga State University of Technology), the method was pretested in clone bank of sounding fir in Training and Experimental Forestry of Volga Tech. A non-destructive method of early diagnostics of technical quality (strength) of young growth of Pine was offered. The method was based on the contact between acoustic and strength characteristics of wood. It allows to select unique samples without cutting down trees and to organize targeted cultivation of wood with certain technical characteristics of wood. Results. The results of the modulus of elasticity of wood, obtained by ultrasonic and vibroacoustic methods, are offered in the paper. Such acoustic indices as fundamental frequency of oscillations of single-sided support sample, speed of propagation of soundwave along the sample were used as the evaluation criteria. The values, obtained by these methods, are homogeneous and have a positive correlation, indicating comparability of the data. Vibroacoustic measuring method is more accurate. Conclusions. At this stage of the research it was found that the most appropriate way to diagnose the acoustic properties of the trees at a young age is vibroacoustic method which should be used together with
Приведены результаты фенологических наблюдений над 23 видами боярышника, интродуцированными в Ботаническом саду-институте Поволжского государственного технологического университета. Дана характеристика метеорологических условий лет наблюдений в пункте интродукции. Изученные виды разделены на ранние, средние, поздние по 13 фенофазам и продолжительности периодов цветения, роста побегов и вегетации. Проанализированы суммы эффективных температур на даты наступления фенофаз, а также доли влияния на них факторов метеоусловий года и видовой специфичности. The study of growth and development regularities of introduced species in new ecological conditions is of great importance for exotics availability evaluation. Knowledge of a specific seasonal rhythm gives the main ideas about exotic species relation to new living conditions and allows to understand how complete is the matching of the phases of their growth and development to the local climate, weather and soil conditions. The purpose of the research was to reveal the regularities of seasonal development of introduced hawthorn (Crataegus L.) in ex situ culture in Mari El Republic. The task in hand was to analyze weather conditions of vegetative periods during observation period, to reveal peculiarities of changing of plants seasonal development phases depending on effective temperatures accumulation dynamics, to make a comparative analysis of the dates of phenological phases changes by the genus complex representatives. The objects of the research were the plants of 23 introduced hawthorn species of the Arboretum collection at the Botanic Garden-Institute of Volga State University of Technology (Yoshkar-Ola, Mari El Republic). Phenological observations were carried out in 2005 - 2010 years in accordance with the technique of the Main Botanic Garden of the Russian Academy of Sciences for botanic gardens. The characteristic of weather conditions was provided according to BGI meteorological post. All data were processed by mathematical statistics methods. Species were divided by criterion хср.±σ into the early, average and late ones by the studied phenophases. All 23 studied introduced hawthorn species pass a full cycle of seasonal development in the Mari El Republic conditions. The sequence of phenological phases passing is as follows: buds breaking, beginning of shoots growth and leaves isolation, flower budding, beginning of shoots wooding, completion of shoots growth, beginning of flowering, completion of leaves growth and maturing, completion of flowering, fruits formation, completion of shoots wooding, fruits maturing, leaves coloration, leaves fall. A consecutive line of hawthorn species depending on the dates of seasonal development (from early to late) was made with the use of calculation of phenological distances and looks as follows: C. sanguinea, C. maximowiczii, C. nigra, С. chlorosarca, C. douglasii, C. pinnatifida, C. rivularis, C. almaatensis, C. chlorocarpa, C. arnoldiana, C. monogyna, C. punctata, C. chrysocarpa, C. grayana, C. volgensis, C. flabellatа, C. turkestanica, C. pringlei, C. horrida, C. submollis, C. macracantha, C. prunifolia, C. calpodendron. Close correlations were found between separate phenophases. The factor of year weather conditions has the greatest impact on development of vegetative bodies at the beginning of vegetation. A species specificity factor has the greatest value at the end of vegetation. This factor has also the greatest impact on development of generative bodies (its influence increases in the course of phenophases passing by plants). Importance of year weather conditions factor, on the contrary, decreases by the end of a vegetative period.
Тест на прорастание пыльцевых зёрен широко применяется в косметической и медицинской промышленности для анализа токсичности веществ на клеточном уровне. Однако до сих пор не было найдено информации о его использовании для изучения биологической активности изолированных вторичных метаболитов. Была проведена работа по анализу возможности использования этой тест-системы для определения стимулирующей активности индивидуальных полисциазидов и гинзенозидов. Для исследования использовали пыльцу Nicotiana tabacum L. Растворы тритерпеновых гликозидов добавляли перед началом инкубации пыльцевых зёрен. Процент прорастания пыльцевых зёрен определяли после 40 и 50 мин. инкубации. The test on germination of pollen-grains is widely used in beauty and medical industry to analyze toxic potential substances at the cellular level. However, no information about its use for study of biological activity of isolated secondary metabolites has been found yet. A study of possibility of use of this test-system for definition of stimulating activity of individual polysciasides and ginsenosides was carried out. Pollen of Nicotiana tabacum L was chosen for the research. Solutions of triterpenoid glycosides were added before incubation of pollen-grains. Percentage of germination of pollen-grains was determined in 40 and 50 minutes after incubation. A stimulating action aimed at pollen-grains germination is necessary for Rb1 ginsenoside, it was not revealed in its derivant. A strong inhibiting action is necessary for Rh2 ginsenoside of the protopanaktodiol`s group, while Rh1 ginsenoside from the protopanaksotriol`s group (it is similar to Rh2 ginsenoside) did not have a serious impact on germination of pollen-grains. The offered test-system showed differences in activity of ginsenosides, caused by presence of additional ОН-group (Rh1 in comparison with Rh2) and addition of remains of malonic acid ( mal-Rb1 in comparison with Rb1). A method of express-assessment of stimulating biological activity of individual triterpenoid glycosides was elaborated. This method is supersensitive, it reveals dependence of biological activity of individual ginsenosides on peculiarities of their chemical structure.
Значительный вклад В. И. Пчелин внёс в изучение внутривидового разнообразия и биоэкологических особенностей лесообразующих видов Среднего Поволжья, большой объём исследований был посвящён проблемам формирования высокопродуктивных лесных насаждений. Им разработаны технологии создания плантационных культур древесных видов, даны рекомендации по оптимизации состава древостоев, выращиванию высококачественной древесины целевого назначения. Значительная часть работ В.И. Пчелина является актуальной и в настоящее время. Автор учебника «Дендрология» для вузов. Victor Ilyich Pchelin, professor, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, outstanding scientist and forester, wise and benevolent head, attentive and skilled teacher and really a good person was 85 years old on the 29th of June 2014. Victor Ilyich was born in Pochinky village of Gorky area. He greatly contributed to the studying of intraspecies variety and bioecological features of forest forming species in Central Volga Area. Many researches of V.I. Pchelin were devoted to the problems of formation of high productive forest plantings. Development of technologies, aimed at establishment of plantations of wood species, development of recommendations concerning optimization of structure of forest stands, cultivation of high-quality wood of purpose were made. The best part of V. I. Pchelin papers is still relevant for today. He is the author of