A positive impact transovarial supply iodine-containing preparation on the physiological and biochemical profile and the quality of day-old chickens egg crossing «Shaver 2000», derived from eggs incubated at high humidity. Effect of the preparation resulted in stimulation of the synthesis of thyroid hormones which determined the more effective implementation of their antioxidant properties as evidenced by a decrease in the intensity of lipid peroxidation. Optimization of physiological and biochemical profile in day-old chicks hatching resulted in an increase in the 8.40% compared with the control. It is also detected synchronization mass withdrawal of young chickens at processing iodine-containing preparation.
NADP-malate Dehydrogenase Isoforms of Wheat Leaves under Drought: Their Localization, and Some physicochemical and Kinetic Properties
Babayev H.G., Mehvaliyeva U.A., Aliyeva M.N., Guliyev N.M., Feyziyev Y.M.
Changes in sub-cellular localization, isoenzyme spectrum and kinetic characteristics of NADP-malate dehydrogenase (NADP-MDH, EC 184.108.40.206) in Triticum durum Desf. genotypes with contrasting drought tolerance have been studied. In chloroplast and cytosol fractions of mesophyll cells of wheat flag leaves 70-75% and 25-30% of the total NADP-MDH activity were found to be localized, respectively. Three isoforms of NADP-MDH with molecular weights of 66, 74 and 86 kDa were revealed in the chloroplast fraction, whereas in the cytosolic fraction molecular weights of the isoenzymes were found to be 42, 66 and 74 kDa. Drought caused the formation of a new 90 kDa isoform of the enzyme in the chloroplast fraction in anthesis phase of ontogenesis. In the drought-tolerant genotype the appearance of the new isoform in the chloroplast fraction was accompanied by a more rapid increase in K m and V max contrary to the chloroplast fraction of the drought-sensitive genotype manifesting a slight decrease in these parameters, suggesting one of the adaptive traits in forming drought tolerance in C 3 plants.
Detection of Genetic Variations in Marine Algae Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta) Induced by Heavy Metal Pollutants
Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta) green macroalgae has been successfully used as bioindicator for heavy metals pollution in ecosystems. Random amplified microsatellite polymorphism (RAMP) marker was employed to investigate genetic DNA pattern variability in green U. lactuca 5 days after exposure to Cu, Pb, Cd and Zn heavy metals stress. Genomic template stability (GTS%) value was employed as a qualitative DNA changes measurement based on RAMP technique. In this respect, estimated GTS% value was recorded to be 65.215, 64.630, 59.835 and 59.250% for Pb, Cu, Cd and Zn treatment, respectively. Moreover, genetic similarity (GS) induced by the above heavy metals was also evaluated to measure genetic distance between algae treated plants and their respective control. In this respect, estimated GS values generated by RAMP marker ranged between 0.576 (between control and Zn treatment) - 0.969 (for both case; between Pb and Cu and between Cd and Zn treatment) with an average of 0.842. Based upon data presented herein based on variant bands number (VB), GTS% and GS values; the present study could be suggested that Pb and Cu followed similar tendency at genomic DNA changes. Similar finding was also observed with Cd and Zn ions. Thereby, RAMP marker successfully highlighted DNA change patterns induced by heavy metals stress.
Physiological Response of the Green Algae Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta) to Heavy Metals Stress
To monitor physiological changes induced by heavy metals contamination on the marine algae Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta), laboratory experiments were performed. Physiological effects of four heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd ions) on U. lactuca were assessed 5 days after exposure under laboratory conditions. Fourier transform raman spectroscopy (FT-Raman) technique was also applied as support for physiological study. Our data showed that the specific growth rate (SGR%), chlorophyll (Chl a & b ), total chlorophyll and carotenoids (Car) pigments decreased significantly in algal thalli under heavy metals stress. This phenomenon was more pronounced with Pb treatment compared to the other tested metals. In addition, morphological changes due to heavy metals treatment were recorded by observed cellular damages under the above mentioned metals. FT-Raman technique showed that the C-H, C=O, CH 2 and C-O-C groups were mainly involved in heavy metals absorption. Moreover, Pb ions showed the highest toxicity against U. lactuca studied by showing the highest decline in the above mentioned physiological parameters.
The microstructure of the leaf surface, lipids composition, pigments spectrum, biological and photosynthetic activity, and hormones status of euhalophyte Eryngium maritimum L., one of the most salt-tolerant plants, were studied. It was shown that the existence in saline and dry soils is provided among others adaptive mechanisms by specific microstructure of leaf, adaxial and abaxial surfaces of which have well-developed cuticle and stomata slit placed below the surface of the epidermis. The presence of a large amount of saturated fatty acids provides decrease of membrane permeability and better resistance against soil salinity. The key role in photosynthetic activity is played by chlorophyll a . At the same time a high amount of carotenoids (as compared with amount of chlorophylls) points out that these pigments have a light-collecting function and could transfer an additional energy to chlorophylls. The data from thermoluminescence analyses showed a possible inhibition of recombination reactions in PS II by the assumed saline concentration in plant tissue. Besides, the fluorescence measurements indicate reduced efficiency of photosynthetic reactions. The high level of active ABA is correlated with salt tolerance and ability to survive and grow in stress conditions. The high level of conjugated form of IAA demonstrated that activity of this hormone is limited.
The Role of Endophytic Microorganisms of Medicinal Plants in the Adaptation of Host Plants
Zhivetev M.A., Turskaya A.L., Putilina T.E., Markova Ju. A., Graskova I.A., Voinikov V.K.
Cultures of microorganisms were isolated from endosphere of Lake Baikal littoral zone plants: Veronica chamaedrys L., Alchemilla subscrenata Buser, Achillea asiatica Serg., Taraxacum officinale Wigg., Plantago major L. Morphology and biochemical properties of isolated bacteria were studied. For the majority of the endophytic bacterial cultures cellulolitic and proteolytic activity has been shown, which necessary for the effective colonization of plant tissue. For many cultures revealed ability in varying degrees to form a biofilm to improve survival in a vegetative organism. Their potencial role in adaptation of plant-hosts under conditions of climat Baikal region was shown. In particular, 9 of cultures demonstrated ability to act as nitrogen retainer. The vast majority of bacterial cultures did not have phytotoxicity or demonstrated its low level, reflecting and minimum negative effects of them on plant. Moreover, culture with encryption P3, isolated from Plantago major in August, showed a stimulatory effect in experiments on phytotoxicity. This same culture possessed the highest ability to secrete sugars as at +26°С and at +4°С.
Changes of Respiration Activities in Cells of Winter Wheat and Sugar Cane Suspension Cultures During Programmed Cell Death Process
Lyubushkina I.V., Fedyaeva A.V., Stepanov A.V., Pobezhimova T.P.
Process of cell death in suspension cultures of winter wheat and sugar cane under high (50 °С) and negative (-8 °С) temperature treatment has been studied. It has been shown, that programmed cell death (PCD) process caused by the negative temperature in the culture of winter wheat was noted for slow rate of realization and it was carried out for 10 days. It has been state that rate of cell respiration was significantly higher than in the control culture. At the same time PCD processes induced by the high temperature in the culture of sugar cane and winter wheat and by the negative temperature in the culture of sugar cane realized for 24-48 h and was accompanied by graduate decrease of respiration activities. We can conclude that the main reason of PCD processes realization differences was a different level of respiration metabolism resistance to high and negative temperatures action.
Temperature Stress and Consequences of its Influence on Functional Activity of Mitochondria in Maize Etiolated Seedlings
Grabelnych O.I., Pobezhimova T.P., Koroleva N.A., Fedoseeva I.V., Stepanov A.V., Lyubushkina I.V., Zhivetev M.A., Graskova I.A., Voinikov V.K.
Treatments of 30-min influences of high (32, 37, 42, 47, 52 °С) and low (0, 17, 22 °С) temperatures on viability of shoots, common activity of peroxidase, content of reactive oxygen species (ROS), intactness and oxidative activity of mitochondria from etiolated maize seedlings have been studied. It has been shown that 17, 32, 37 и 42 °С temperatures cause intensification of peroxidase activity, and 52 °С depresses this enzyme activity and then led to total death of shoots. ROS content in mitochondria increased during the treatment of seedlings with 0, 17, 22, 37 и 42 °С temperatures. All temperature exposures led to decrease of succinate oxidation rates in mitochondria, at that 47 и 52 °С temperatures inhibited mitochondria respiration to an even greater degree. However, if after the action of the temperature 47 °C the phosphorylating activity was maintained in the mitochondria, after 52 °C it was absent and mitochondria had reduced intactness of outer mitochondria membrane. Low temperatures led to uncouple of oxidative phosphorylation and activating of cyanide-resistant respiration. Role of mitochondria in plant response on the temperature stress has been discussed.
The Content of Phenolic Compounds in the Pea Seedling Root Exudates Depends on the Size of Their Roots and Inoculation of Bacteria Mutualistic and Antagonistic Type of Interactions
Makarova L.E., Dudareva L.V., Petrova I.G.
The effect of the bacteria Rhizobium and Pseudomonas on total content of phenolic compounds (PC) and their individual components (apigenin, naringenin, dibutyl-ortho-phthalate, pisatin, N-phenyl-2-naphthylamine) in the root exudates of the pea seedlings ( Pisum sativum L. ) at two different growth stages was studied . Bacteria have similar affect on the total number of PC and the number of constituent apigenine, phthalate and pisatine. Difference at the impact of these bacteria on the content of naringenin and N-phenyl-2-naphthylamine was detected, which can be attributed to the peculiarities of the interactions of plants of peas with bacteria-antagonists and mutualists.