The Study of the Effects of Surface Dielectric Barrier Discharge Low Temperature Plasma Products on Spring and Winter Wheat Germination
Lazukin A.V., Lyubushkina I.V., Kirichenko K.A., Grabelnych O.I., Krivov S.A., Nikitin A.M.
The use of ion-plasma technologies for treatment of seeds of different crop plants is particularly important for regions that exist in environment of risk farming. This is due to the lack of supplies in the treatment, durability, reliability and performance of these technologies. However, the mixed results of studies obtained for different species and varieties of seeds, make it necessary to detail compare the effects of the low-temperature plasma products for different cultures. This paper presents the results of experimental studies of the effects of plasma products of surface dielectric barrier discharge on the germination of spring and winter wheat. It has been shown that irrespective of time and the exposure intensity laboratory germination of spring wheat seeds reduced of 74% in the control group to 52% of the treated seeds, while the germination of wheat seeds is not reduced even at a relatively long exposure (20 min). The modes of treatment (3 min, 2.1-2.4 kV) at which germination of winter wheat seeds increase from 81% in the control group to 87% of the treated seeds have been selected. Resistance of winter wheat seed germination to the product of the discharge plasma can be used to form the conditions for safe suppression of a variety of pathogenic organisms on the surface of seeds.
The Effects of Aluminum and Phosphorous on some of Physiological Characteristics of Brassica napus
Tohidi Zahra, Baghizadeh Amin, Enteshari Shekofeh
The environmental toxicity of Aluminum causes nervous, lung and kidney disease in human body. Aluminum toxicity depends on different factors and these factors cause penetration of toxic element to environment soil. The acidity of environment and the root of plants cause the lack of tolerance in absorption of nutrients and makes abnormality in the growth of plants. In this study the effect of Aluminum (40 µmol) and different levels of Phosphorous (0, 40, 80, 320 µmol) in one cultivar of Brassica napus were investigated. Results showed in plants that treated with Aluminum, Shoot length, Root length and Chlorophyll a, b content significantly decreased but Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Reduced Sugars content significantly increased. On the other hand, in plants that treated with Phosphorous and Aluminum decreased in growth parameters and Chlorophylls content moderated against plants that treated just with Al and MDA content and reduced sugar content decreased. From these results we suggested that Phosphorous treatment reduced the harmful effect of Aluminum toxicity in this cultivar of canola.
Effect of Drought Stress on Some Physiological Traits of Durum ( Triticum durum Desf.) and Bread ( Triticum aestivum L.) Wheat Genotypes
Drought is a wide-spread problem seriously influencing wheat production and quality worldwide. We aimed to study adaptive changes in physiological parameters of 6 durum and 7 bread wheat genotypes under drought stress. Water stress caused reduction of leaf gas exchange parameters-photosynthesis rate, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO 2 concentration, transpiration rate as well leaf area, dry mass, relative water content, and chlorophyll content. Photosynthesis rate, chlorophyll content were higher in flag leaf of bread wheat genotypes. Photosynthesis rate positively correlated with leaf area, dry mass and relative water content.
The Ability to Self-fertilization as a Factor of Eurybiontness in Freshwater Pulmonate Mollusks
Bodilovskaya O.A., Khomich A.S., Axenov-Gribanov D.V., Shatilina Z.M., Shirokova Y.A., Timofeyev М.А., Lubyaga Y.A., Golubev A.P.
The reproduction parameters of eurybiontic ( Lymnaea stagnalis ) and stenobiontic ( Stagnicola corvus ) species originating from the reservoirs of Belarus and Russia with the different anthropogenic pollution are determined during experiment with cross-fertilization (CF) and self-fertilization (SF). There are the Chernobyl nuclear accident zone reservoirs, a warm effluent channel of a heat electric power station, the degrading ameliorative channel, the strongly polluted Svisloch River, non-contaminated Naroch Lake and a reservoir in the Angara river floodplain. L. stagnalis from non-contaminated reservoirs is characterized by high fecundity at the reproduction by SF and CF. With increase in the extent of reservoir pollution these parameters in L. stagnalis sharply decreased. S. corvus from the reservoir of the Chernobyl zone didn't breed at all through SF though its fecundity at CF far was rather high. Therefore S. corvus can exist only in reservoirs with rather stable environmental conditions, where their population density doesn't fall below some critical level. At the same time L. stagnalis population even at very low density can be restored by an single survived individual.